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The adverse reactions associated with hydrochlorothiazide have been shown to be dose related. In controlled clinical trials, the adverse events reported with doses of 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide once daily were comparable to placebo. The following adverse reactions have been reported for doses of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg and greater and, within each category, are listed in the order of decreasing severity.
Body as a whole: Weakness.
Hypersensitivity: Anaphylactic reactions, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, photosensitivity, fever, urticaria, rash, purpura.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle spasm.
Renal: Renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis (see WARNINGS).
Whenever adverse reactions are moderate or severe, thiazide dosage should be reduced or therapy withdrawn.
Read the Microzide (hydrochlorothiazide capsule) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects »
When given concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics:
Alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics - potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.
Antidiabetic drugs- (oral agents and insulin) dosage adjustment of the antidiabetic drug may be required.
Other antihypertensive drugs - additive effect or potentiation.
Cholestyramine and colestipol resins - Cholestyramine and colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85 and 43 percent, respectively.
Corticosteroid, ACTH - intensified electrolyte depletion, particularly hypokalemia.
Pressor amines (e.g., norepinephrine) - possible decreased response to pressor amines but not sufficient to preclude their use.
Skeletal muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing (e.g., tubocurarine) - possible increased responsiveness to the muscle relaxant.
Lithium - generally should not be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and greatly increase the risk of lithium toxicity. Refer to the package insert for lithium preparations before use of such preparations with MICROZIDE (hydrochlorothiazide capsule) .
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - In some patients, the administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent can reduce the diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of loop, potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics. When MICROZIDE (hydrochlorothiazide capsule) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are used concomitantly, the patients should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function (see PRECAUTIONS, General).
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/10/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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