Midazolam Hydrochloride Syrup
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Midazolam Hydrochloride Syrup
Serious respiratory adverse events have occurred after administration of oral midazolam, most often when midazolam was used in combination with other central nervous system depressants. These adverse events have included respiratory depression, airway obstruction, oxygen desaturation, apnea, and rarely, respiratory and/or cardiac arrest (see BOX WARNING). When oral midazolam is administered as the sole agent at recommended doses respiratory depression, airway obstruction, oxygen desaturation, and apnea occur infrequently (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Prior to the administration of midazolam in any dose, the immediate availability of oxygen, resuscitative drugs, age-and size-appropriate equipment for bag/valve/mask ventilation and intubation, and skilled personnel for the maintenance of a patent airway and support of ventilation should be ensured. Midazolam HCl syrup must never be used without individualization of dosage, particularly when used with other medications capable of producing central nervous system depression.
Midazolam HCI syrup should be used only in hospital or ambulatory care settings, including physicians' and dentists' offices, that are equipped to provide continuous monitoring of respiratory and cardiac function. Midazolam HCI syrup must only be administered to patients if they will be monitored by direct visual observation by a health care professional. If midazolam HCI syrup will be administered in combination with other anesthetic drugs or drugs which depress the central nervous system, patients must be monitored by persons specifically trained in the use of these drugs and, in particular, in the management of respiratory effects of these drugs, including respiratory and cardiac resuscitation of patients in the age group being treated.
For deeply sedated patients, a dedicated individual whose sole responsibility is to observe the patient, other than the practitioner performing the procedure, should monitor the patient throughout the procedure.
Patients should be continuously monitored for early signs of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, or apnea with means for detection readily available (eg, pulse oximetry). Hypoventilation, airway obstruction, and apnea can lead to hypoxia and/or cardiac arrest unless effective countermeasures are taken immediately. The immediate availability of specific reversal agents (flumazenil) is highly recommended. Vital signs should continue to be monitored during the recovery period. Because midazolam can depress respiration (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY), especially when used concomitantly with opioid agonists and other sedatives (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), it should be used for sedation/anxiolysis/amnesia only in the presence of personnel skilled in early detection of hypoventilation, maintaining a patent airway, and supporting ventilation.
Episodes of oxygen desaturation, respiratory depression, apnea, and airway obstruction have been occasionally reported following premedication (sedation prior to induction of anesthesia) with oral midazolam; such events are markedly increased when oral midazolam is combined with other central nervous system depressing agents and in patients with abnormal airway anatomy, patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease, or patients with sepsis or severe pulmonary disease.
Reactions such as agitation, involuntary movements (including tonic/clonic movements and muscle tremor), hyperactivity and combativeness have been reported in both adult and pediatric patients. Consideration should be given to the possibility of paradoxical reaction. Should such reactions occur, the response to each dose of midazolam and all other drugs, including local anesthetics, should be evaluated before proceeding. Reversal of such responses with flumaze-nil has been reported in pediatric and adult patients.
Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol or other central nervous system depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect. Narcotic premedication also depresses the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide stimulation.
Coadministration of oral midazolam in patients who are taking ketoconazole, intraconazole and saquinavir has been shown to result in large increases in Cmax and AUC of midazolam due to decrease in plasma clearance of midazolam (see PHARMACOKINETICS: Drug-Drug Interactions and PRECAUTIONS). Due to potential for intense and prolonged sedation and respiratory depression, midazolam syrup should only be coadministered with these medications if absolutely necessary and with appropriate equipment and personnel available to respond to respiratory insufficiency.
Higher risk pediatric surgical patients may require lower doses, whether or not concomitant sedating medications have been administered. Pediatric patients with cardiac or respiratory compromise may be unusually sensitive to the respiratory depressant effect of midazolam. Pediatric patients undergoing procedures involving the upper airway such as upper endoscopy or dental care, are particularly vulnerable to episodes of desaturation and hypoventilation due to partial airway obstruction. Patients with chronic renal failure and patients with congestive heart failure eliminate midazo-lam more slowly (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
The decision as to when patients who have received midazolam HCI syrup, particularly on an outpatient basis, may again engage in activities requiring complete mental alertness, operate hazardous machinery or drive a motor vehicle must be individualized. Gross tests of recovery from the effects of midazolam HCI syrup (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY) cannot be relied upon to predict reaction time under stress. It is recommended that no patient operate hazardous machinery or a motor vehicle until the effects of the drug, such as drowsiness, have subsided or until one full day after anesthesia and surgery, whichever is longer. Particular care should be taken to assure safe ambulation.
Usage in Pregnancy: Although midazolam HCI syrup has not been studied in pregnant patients, an increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of benzodiazepine drugs (diazepam and chlordiazepoxide) have been suggested in several studies. If this drug is used during pregnancy, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Usage in Preterm Infants and Neonates: Midazolam HCI syrup has not been studied in patients less than 6 months of age.
Use With Other CNS Depressants: The efficacy and safety of midazolam in clinical use are func-tions of the dose administered, the clinical status of the individual patient, and the use of concomitant medications capable of depressing the CNS. Anticipated effects may range from mild sedation to deep levels of sedation with a potential loss of protective reflexes, particularly when coadministered with anesthetic agents or other CNS depres-sants. Care must be taken to individualize the dose of midazolam based on the patient's age, underlying medical/surgical conditions, concomitant medications, and to have the personnel, age- and size-appropriate equipment and facilities available for monitoring and intervention. Practitioners administering midazolam must have the skills necessary to manage reasonably foreseeable adverse effects, particularly skills in airway management.
Use With Inhibitors of CYP3A4 Isozymes: Oral midazolam should be used with caution in patients treated with drugs known to inhibit CYP3A4 because inhibition of metabolism may lead to more intense and prolonged sedation (see PHARMACOKINETICS: Drug-Drug Interactions and WARNINGS). Patients being treated with medications known to inhibit CYP3A4 isozymes should be treated with lower than recommended doses of midazolam HCl syrup and the clinician should expect a more intense and prolonged effect.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenesis: Midazolam maleate was administered with diet in mice and rats for 2 years at dosages of 1, 9, and 80 mg/kg/day. In female mice in the highest dose (10 times the highest oral dose of 1 mg/kg for a pediatric patient, on a mg/m2 basis) group there was a marked increase in the incidence of hepatic tumors. In high-dose (19 times the pediatric dose) male rats there was a small but statistically significant increase in benign thyroid follicular cell tumors. Dosages of 9 mg/kg/day of midazolam maleate (1 to 2 times the pediatric dose) did not increase the incidence of tumors in mice or rats. The pathogenesis of induction of these tumors is not known. These tumors were found after chronic administration, whereas human use will ordinarily be single or intermittent doses.
Impairment of Fertility: A reproduction study in male and female rats did not show any impairment of fertility at dosages up to 16 mg/kg/day PO (3 times the human dose of 1 mg/kg, on a mg/m2 basis).
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category D (see WARNINGS).
Embryo-fetal development studies, performed with midazolam maleate in mice (at up to 120 mg/kg/day PO, 10 times the human dose of 1 mg/kg on a mg/m2 basis), rats (at up to 4 mg/kg/day IV, 8 times the human IV dose of 5 mg) and rabbits (at up to 100 mg/kg/day PO, 32 times the human oral dose of 1 mg/kg on a mg/m2 basis), did not show evidence of teratogenicity.
Nonteratogenic Effects: Studies in rats showed no adverse effects on reproductive parameters during gestation and lactation. Dosages tested (4 mg/kg IV and 50 mg/kg PO) were approximately 8 times each of the human doses on a mg/m2 basis.
Labor and Delivery
The use of midazolam HCl syrup in obstetrics has not been evaluated in clinical studies. Because midazolam is transferred transplacentally and because other benzodiazepines given in the last weeks of pregnancy have resulted in neonatal CNS depression, midazolam syrup is not recommended for obstetrical use.
Midazolam is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when midazolam syrup is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and efficacy of this product have not been fully studied in geriatric patients. Therefore, there are no available data on a safe dosing regimen. One study in geriatric subjects, using midazolam 7.5 mg as a premedicant prior to general anesthesia, noted a 60% incidence of hypoxemia (pO2<90% for over 30 seconds) at sometime during the operative procedure versus 15% for the nonpremedicated group. Until further information is available it is recommended that this product should not be used in geriatric patients.
Use in Patients With Heart Disease
Following oral administration of 7.5 mg of midazolam to adult patients with congestive heart failure, the half-life of midazolam was 43% higher than in control subjects. One study suggests that hyper-carbia or hypoxia following premedication with oral midazolam might pose a risk to children with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension, although there are no known reports of pulmonary hypertensive crises that had been triggered by premedication. In the study, 22 children were premedicated with oral midazolam (0.75 mg/kg) or IM morphine plus scopolamine prior to elective repair of congenital cardiac defects. Both premedication regimens increased PtcCO2 and decreased SpO2 and respiratory rates preferentially in patients with pulmonary hypertension.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/25/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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