"Risk factors for repeat pregnancy terminations include teenage pregnancy, social deprivation, two or more previous live births or miscarriages at the time of the initial termination, and the use of posttermination contraception with implants and "...
Mechanism Of Action
The anti-progestational activity of mifepristone results from competitive interaction with progesterone at progesterone-receptor sites. Based on studies with various oral doses in several animal species (mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey), the compound inhibits the activity of endogenous or exogenous progesterone, resulting in effects on the uterus and cervix that, when combined with misoprostol, result in termination of an intrauterine pregnancy.
During pregnancy, the compound sensitizes the myometrium to the contraction-inducing activity of prostaglandins.
Doses of 1 mg/kg or greater of mifepristone have been shown to antagonize the endometrial and myometrial effects of progesterone in women.
Antiglucocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity: Mifepristone also exhibits antiglucocorticoid and weak antiandrogenic activity. The activity of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone in rats was inhibited following doses of 10 to 25 mg/kg of mifepristone. Doses of 4.5 mg/kg or greater in human beings resulted in a compensatory elevation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol. Antiandrogenic activity was observed in rats following repeated administration of doses from 10 to 100 mg/kg.
Mifepristone is rapidly absorbed after oral ingestion with non-linear pharmacokinetics for Cmax after single oral doses of 200 mg and 600 mg in healthy subjects.
The absolute bioavailability of a 20 mg mifepristone oral dose in women of childbearing age is 69%. Following oral administration of a single dose of 600 mg, mifepristone is rapidly absorbed, with a peak plasma concentration of 1.98 ± 1.0 mg/L occurring approximately 90 minutes after ingestion.
Following oral administration of a single dose of 200 mg in healthy men (n=8), mean Cmax was 1.77 ± 0.7 mg/L occurring approximately 45 minutes after ingestion. Mean AUC0-∞ was 25.8 ± 6.2 mg*hr/L.
Mifepristone is 98% bound to plasma proteins, albumin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Binding to the latter protein is saturable, and the drug displays nonlinear kinetics with respect to plasma concentration and clearance.
Following a distribution phase, elimination of mifepristone is slow at first (50% eliminated between 12 and 72 hours) and then becomes more rapid with a terminal elimination half-life of 18 hours.
Metabolism of mifepristone is primarily via pathways involving N-demethylation and terminal hydroxylation of the 17-propynyl chain. In vitro studies have shown that CYP450 3A4 is primarily responsible for the metabolism. The three major metabolites identified in humans are: (1) RU 42 633, the most widely found in plasma, is the N-monodemethylated metabolite; (2) RU 42 848, which results from the loss of two methyl groups from the 4-dimethylaminophenyl in position 11β; and (3) RU 42 698, which results from terminal hydroxylation of the 17-propynyl chain.
By 11 days after a 600 mg dose of tritiated compound, 83% of the drug has been accounted for by the feces and 9% by the urine. Serum concentrations are undetectable by 11 days.
The effects of age, hepatic disease and renal disease on the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of mifepristone have not been investigated.
Safety and efficacy data from clinical studies of mifepristone 200 mg orally followed 24-48 hours later by misoprostol 800 mcg buccally through 70 days gestation are reported below. Success was defined as the complete expulsion of the products of conception without the need for surgical intervention. The overall rates of success and failure, shown by reason for failure based on 22 worldwide clinical studies (including 7 U.S. studies) appear in Table 3.
The demographics of women who participated in the U.S. clinical studies varied depending on study location and represent the racial and ethnic variety of American females. Females of all reproductive ages were represented, including females less than 18 and more than 40 years of age; most were 27 years or younger.
Table 3 : Outcome Following Treatment with Mifepristone
(oral) and Misoprostol (buccal) Through 70 Days Gestation
|U.S. Trials||Non-U.S. Trials|
|Complete Medical Abortion||97.4%||96.2%|
|* Reasons for surgical
intervention include ongoing pregnancy, medical necessity, persistent or heavy
bleeding after treatment, patient request, or incomplete expulsion.
** Ongoing pregnancy is a subcategory of surgical intervention, indicating the percent of women who have surgical intervention due to an ongoing pregnancy.
The results for clinical studies that reported outcomes, including failure rates for ongoing pregnancy, by gestational age are presented in Table 4.
Table 4 : Outcome by
Gestational Age Following Treatment with Mifepristone and Misoprostol (buccal)
for U.S. and Non-U.S. Clinical Studies
|< 49 days||50-56 days||57-63 days||64-70 days|
|N||%||Number of Evaluable Studies||N||%||Number of Evaluable Studies||N||%||Number of Evaluable Studies||N||%||Number of Evaluable Studies|
|Complete medical abortion||12,046||98.1||10||3,941||96.8||7||2,294||94.7||9||479||92.7||4|
|Surgical intervention for ongoing pregnancy||10,272||0.3||6||3,788||0.8||6||2,211||2||8||453||3.1||3|
One clinical study asked subjects through 70 days gestation to estimate when they expelled the pregnancy, with 70% providing data. Of these, 23-38% reported expulsion within 3 hours and over 90% within 24 hours of using misoprostol.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/12/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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