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Due to oral minocycline's virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines.
Body as a whole: Fever, and discoloration of secretions.
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyspepsia, stomatitis, glossitis, dysphagia, enamel hypoplasia, enterocolitis, pseudomembranous colitis, pancreatitis, inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the oral and anogenital regions. Instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients taking the tetracycline-class antibiotics in capsule and tablet form. Most of these patients took the medication immediately before going to bed. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Hepatic toxicity: Hyperbilirubinemia, hepatic cholestasis, increases in liver enzymes, fatal hepatic failure, and jaundice. Hepatitis, including autoimmune hepatitis, and liver failure have been reported. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Skin: Alopecia, erythema nodosum, hyperpigmentation of nails, pruritus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and vasculitis. Maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported. Fixed drug eruptions have been reported. Lesions occurring on the glans penis have caused balanitis. Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported. Photosensitivity is discussed above. (See WARNINGS.) Pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes has been reported.
Hypersensitivity reactions: Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, polyarthralgia, anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reaction (including shock and fatalities), anaphylactoid purpura, myocarditis, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus and pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia have been reported. A transient lupus-like syndrome and serum sickness-like reactions also have been reported.
Central Nervous System: Convulsions, dizziness, hypesthesia, paresthesia, sedation, and vertigo. Bulging fontanels in infants and benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri) in adults have been reported. (See PRECAUTIONS - General.) Headache has also been reported.
Other: When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of the thyroid gland. Cases of abnormalthyroid function have been reported.
Tooth discoloration in children less than 8 years of age (see WARNINGS) and also, in adults has been reported.
Oral cavity discoloration (including tongue, lip, and gum) have been reported.
Tinnitus and decreased hearing have been reported in patients on MINOCIN ® .
The following syndromes have been reported. In some cases involving these syndromes, death has been reported. As with other serious adverse reactions, if any of these syndromes are recognized, the drug should be discontinued immediately:
Hypersensitivity syndrome consisting of cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more of the following: hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. Fever and lymphadenopathy may be present.
Lupus-like syndrome consisting of positive antinuclear antibody; arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling; and one or more of the following: fever, myalgia, hepatitis, rash, and vasculitis.
Serum sickness-like syndrome consisting of fever; urticaria or rash; and arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling. Eosinophilia may be present.
Read the Minocin Capsules (minocycline) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.
The concurrent use of tetracycline and methoxyflurane has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.
Concurrent use of tetracyclines with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective.
Administration of isotretinoin should be avoided shortly before, during, and shortly after minocycline therapy. Each drug alone has been associated with pseudotumor cerebri. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Increased risk of ergotism when ergot alkaloids or their derivatives are given with tetracyclines.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
False elevations of urinary catecholamine levels may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/1/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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