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Due to oral minocycline's virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines.
Body as a whole: Fever, and discoloration of secretions.
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyspepsia, stomatitis, glossitis, dysphagia, enamel hypoplasia, enterocolitis, pseudomembranous colitis, pancreatitis, inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the oral and anogenital regions. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines.
Hepatic toxicity: Hyperbilirubinemia, hepatic cholestasis, increases in liver enzymes, fatal hepatic failure, jaundice. Hepatitis, including autoimmune hepatitis, and liver failure have been reported. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Skin: Alopecia, erythema nodosum, hyperpigmentation of nails, pruritus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and vasculitis. Maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported. Fixed drug eruptions, including balanitis, have been reported. Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported. Photosensitivity is discussed above. (See WARNINGS.) Pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes has been reported.
Respiratory: Cough, dyspnea, bronchospasm, and exacerbation of asthma, and pneumonitis.
Renal toxicity: Interstitial nephritis. Elevations in BUN have been reported and are apparently dose related. (See WARNINGS.) Acute renal failure has been reported.
Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, arthritis, bone discoloration, myalgia, joint stiffness, and joint swelling.
Hypersensitivity reactions: Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, polyarthralgia, anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reaction (including shock and fatalities), anaphylactoid purpura, myocarditis, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus and pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia have been reported. A transient lupus-like syndrome and serum sickness-like reactions also have been reported.
Blood: Agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.
Central Nervous System: Convulsions, dizziness, hypesthesia, paresthesia, sedation, and vertigo. Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) in adults and bulging fontanels in infants. (See PRECAUTIONS – General.) Headache has also been reported.
Other: When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of the thyroid gland. Cases of abnormal thyroid function have been reported.
Tooth discoloration in pediatric patients less than 8 years of age (see WARNINGS) and also, in adults has been reported.
Oral cavity discoloration (including tongue, lip, and gum) have been reported.
Tinnitus and decreased hearing have been reported in patients on MINOCIN® (minocycline hydrochloride).
The following syndromes have been reported. In some cases involving these syndromes, death has been reported. As with other serious adverse reactions, if any of these syndromes are recognized, the drug should be discontinued immediately:
Hypersensitivity syndrome consisting of cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more of the following: hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. Fever and lymphadenopathy may be present.
Lupus-like syndrome consisting of positive antinuclear antibody; arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling; and one or more of the following: fever, myalgia, hepatitis, rash, and vasculitis.
Serum sickness-like syndrome consisting of fever; urticaria or rash; and arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness, or joint swelling. Eosinophilia may be present.
Read the Minocin (minocycline hydrochloride oral suspension) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.
Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracycline in conjunction with penicillin.
Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, and iron-containing preparations.
The concurrent use of tetracycline and methoxyflurane has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.
Concurrent use of tetracyclines with oral contraceptives may render oral contraceptives less effective.
Administration of isotretinoin should be avoided shortly before, during, and shortly after minocycline therapy. Each drug alone has been associated with pseudotumor cerebri. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Increased risk of ergotism when ergot alkaloids or their derivatives are given with tetracyclines.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
False elevations of urinary catecholamine levels may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/20/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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