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Minoxidil

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Minoxidil

Overdosage
Contraindications

OVERDOSE

There have been only a few instances of deliberate or accidental overdosage with minoxidil tablets. One patient recovered after taking 50 mg of minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil tablets) tablets) tablets) together with 500 mg of a barbiturate. When exaggerated hypotension is encountered, it is most likely to occur in association with residual sympathetic nervous system blockade from previous therapy (guanethidine-like effects or alpha-adrenergic blockage), which prevents the usual compensatory maintenance of blood pressure. Intravenous administration of normal saline will help to maintain blood pressure and facilitate urine formation in these patients. Sympathomimetic drugs such as norepinephrine or epinephrine should be avoided because of their excessive cardiac stimulating action. Phenylephrine, angiotensin ll, vasopressin, and dopamine all reverse hypotension due to minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil tablets) tablets) tablets) , but should only be used if underperfusion of a vital organ is evident.

Radioimmunoassay can be performed to determine the concentration of minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil tablets) tablets) tablets) in the blood. At the maximum adult dose of 100 mg/day, peak blood levels of 1641 ng/mL and 2441 ng/mL were observed in two patients, respectively. Due to patient-to-patient variation in blood levels, it is difficult to establish an overdosage warning level. In general, a substantial increase above 2000 ng/mL should be regarded as overdosage, unless the physician is aware that the patient has taken no more than the maximum dose.

Oral LD50 in rats has ranged from 1321-3492 mg/kg; in mice, 2456-2648 mg/kg.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil tablets) tablets) tablets) tablets are contraindicated in pheochromocytoma, because it may stimulate secretion of catecholamines from the tumor through its antihypertensive action. Minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil (minoxidil tablets) tablets) tablets) is contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of the components of the preparation.

Last reviewed on RxList: 6/25/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Overdosage
Contraindications
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