"Jan. 8, 2013 -- Parkinson's disease itself doesn't seem to raise a person's risk for compulsive addictions to things like gambling, shopping, or sex, a new study shows.
Compulsive behaviors affect about 14% of Parkinson's patients tre"...
Mirapex ER Side Effects Center
Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
Mirapex ER (Pramipexole Dihydrochloride) is a dopamine agonist used alone or with other medications to treat Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS). Common side effects include drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, headache, or dry mouth.
The recommended dose of Mirapex ER is one extended-release tablet taken orally once daily, with or without food. Mirapex ER may interact with cold or allergy medicine, narcotic pain medicine, sleeping pills, muscle relaxants, anti-seizure medications, antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, alcohol, or other medications that can make you drowsy. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you take. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness while taking Mirapex ER. Talk to your doctor if you become pregnant or plan to become pregnant while taking Mirapex ER. During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Consult your doctor before using Mirapex ER if you are breastfeeding.
Our Mirapex ER (Pramipexole Dihydrochloride) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What is Patient Information in Detail?
Easy-to-read and understand detailed drug information and pill images for the patient or caregiver from Cerner Multum.
Mirapex ER in Detail - Patient Information: Side Effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Stop taking pramipexole and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
- extreme drowsiness, falling asleep suddenly, even after feeling alert;
- nausea, sweating, feeling light-headed, fainting;
- muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness with fever or flu symptoms and dark colored urine;
- chest pain, cough with white or pink phlegm (mucus), wheezing;
- feeling short of breath (even with mild exertion), swelling, rapid weight gain;
- feeling weak or tired, loss of appetite, rapid weight loss;
- fast or uneven heartbeats; or
- tremors, twitching or uncontrollable movements of your eyes, lips, tongue, face, arms, or legs.
Less serious side effects may include:
- dry mouth, stomach pain, vomiting, constipation;
- headache, dizziness, spinning sensation;
- mild drowsiness;
- swelling in your hands or feet;
- appetite or weight changes;
- blurred vision;
- sleep problems (insomnia), unusual dreams;
- amnesia, forgetfulness, thinking problems; or
- impotence, loss of interest in sex, or trouble having an orgasm.
Read the entire detailed patient monograph for Mirapex ER (Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets) »
What is Patient Information Overview?
A concise overview of the drug for the patient or caregiver from First DataBank.
Mirapex ER Overview - Patient Information: Side Effects
Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, trouble sleeping, constipation, headache, cough, or dry mouth may occur. If these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor promptly.
Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.
Tell your doctor immediately if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: mental/mood changes (such as confusion, depression, hallucinations), muscle cramps/spasm.
Tell your doctor immediately if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: swelling of the ankles/feet, chest pain, trouble breathing, compulsive behaviors (such as pathological gambling), muscle pain/weakness, unusual tiredness, change in amount of urine, vision changes.
Some people taking pramipexole have reported falling asleep suddenly during their usual daily activities (such as talking on the phone, driving). In some cases, sleep occurred without any feelings of drowsiness beforehand. This sleep effect may occur any time during treatment with pramipexole, including up to 1 year after starting the medication. Therefore, you should not drive or take part in other possibly dangerous activities until you are certain that this medication will not cause drowsiness or sudden sleep. If you experience increased sleepiness or fall asleep during the day, do not drive or take part in other possibly dangerous activities until you have discussed this effect with your doctor. Your risk is increased with use of alcohol or other medications that can make you drowsy. You may also develop a sudden drop in blood pressure, which can cause dizziness, nausea, sweating, and fainting. This is more likely when you are first starting the medication, when your dose is increased, or when you get up suddenly. To lower your risk, get up slowly from a sitting or lying position.
A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
In the US -
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
Read the entire patient information overview for Mirapex ER (Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets)»
What is Prescribing information?
The FDA package insert formatted in easy-to-find categories for health professionals and clinicians.
Mirapex ER FDA Prescribing Information: Side Effects
The following are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Falling Asleep During Activities of Daily Living [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Symptomatic Orthostatic Hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Impulse Control/Compulsive Behaviors [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hallucinations [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Dyskinesia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Renal Impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Rhabdomyolysis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Retinal Pathology [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Events Reported with Dopaminergic Therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse event rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug (or of another development program of a different formulation of the same drug) and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
During the premarketing development of MIRAPEX ER tablets, patients with early Parkinson's disease were treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets, placebo, or immediate-release pramipexole tablets. In addition, a randomized, double-blind, parallel group trial was conducted in 156 early Parkinson's disease patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stages I-III) to assess overnight switching of immediate-release pramipexole tablets to MIRAPEX ER tablets. In this latter study, concomitant treatment with stable doses of levodopa, monoamine oxidase B inhibitor (MAOB-I) drugs, anticholinergics, or amantadine, individually or in combination, was allowed. In a third trial, advanced Parkinson's disease patients received MIRAPEX ER tablets, placebo, or immediate-release pramipexole tablets as adjunctive therapy to levodopa.
Early Parkinson's Disease
The most commonly observed adverse events ( ≥ 5% and more frequent than placebo) after 33 weeks of treatment with MIRAPEX ER tablets in the trial of early Parkinson's disease patients were somnolence, nausea, constipation, dizziness, fatigue, hallucinations, dry mouth, muscle spasms, and peripheral edema.
Twenty four of 223 (11%) patients treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets for 33 weeks discontinued treatment due to adverse events compared to 4 of 103 (4%) patients who received placebo and approximately 20 of 213 (9%) patients who received immediate-release pramipexole tablets. The adverse event most commonly causing discontinuation of treatment with MIRAPEX ER tablets was nausea (2%).
Table 1 lists adverse events that occurred with a frequency of at least 2% with MIRAPEX ER and were more frequent than with placebo during 33 weeks of treatment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in early Parkinson's disease. In this study, patients did not receive concomitant levodopa; however, levodopa was permitted as rescue medication. Adverse events were usually mild (38%) or moderate (41%) in intensity.
Table 1 : Treatment-Emergent Adverse-Event Incidence
in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled 33 Week Trial in Early Parkinson's
Disease (Events ≥ 2% of Patients Treated with MIRAPEX ER and greater than
|Body System/Adverse Event||Placebo
|Nervous system disorders|
|Upper abdominal pain||1||3||4|
|General disorders and administration site conditions|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|Hallucinations, including visual, auditory and mixed||1||5||6|
|Sleep attacks or sudden onset of sleep||1||3||6|
|Injury, poisoning and procedural complications|
|Ear and labyrinth disorders|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders|
Because this study used a flexible dose titration design, it was not possible to assess the effects of dose on the incidence of adverse events.
Adverse events can initially occur in either the titration or maintenance phase. Some adverse events developed in MIRAPEX ER-treated patients during the titration phase and persisted ( ≥ 7 days) into the maintenance phase (i.e., MIRAPEX ER % -placebo % = treatment difference ≥ 2%); persistent adverse events were somnolence, nausea, constipation, fatigue, and dry mouth.
A double-blind, randomized, parallel group trial evaluated the tolerability of an overnight switch from immediate-release pramipexole tablets to MIRAPEX ER tablets at the same daily dose in 156 early Parkinson's disease patients with or without levodopa. One of 104 patients switched from immediate-release pramipexole tablets to MIRAPEX ER tablets discontinued due to adverse events (vertigo and nausea).
Advanced Parkinson's Disease
The most commonly observed adverse events ( ≥ 5% and greater frequency than in placebo) during 18 weeks of treatment with MIRAPEX ER tablets in the trial of advanced Parkinson's disease patients with concomitant levodopa were dyskinesia, nausea, constipation, hallucinations, headache, and anorexia.
Eight of 164 (5%) patients treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets for 18 weeks discontinued treatment due to adverse events compared to 7 of 178 (4%) patients who received placebo and 8 of 175 (5%) patients who received immediate-release pramipexole tablets. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment with MIRAPEX ER tablets were nausea (1%) and hallucination (1%).
Table 2 lists adverse events that occurred with a frequency of at least 2% with MIRAPEX ER and were more frequent than with placebo during 18 weeks of treatment in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease treated with MIRAPEX ER tablets. In this study, MIRAPEX ER tablets, immediate-release pramipexole tablets, or placebo was administered to patients who were also receiving concomitant levodopa. Adverse events were usually mild (32%) or moderate (17%) in intensity.
Table 2 : Treatment-Emergent
Adverse-Event Incidence in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Advanced
Parkinson's Disease* (Events ≥ 2% of Patients Treated with MIRAPEX ER and
greater than with Placebo)
|Body System/Adverse Event||Placebo
|Nervous system disorders|
|Hallucinations, including visual, auditory and mixed||2||9||7|
|Metabolism and nutrition disorders|
|Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders|
|*18-week final analysis|
Because this flexible dose study used a titration design, it was not possible to assess the effects of dose on the incidence of adverse events.
Adverse events can initially occur in either the titration or maintenance phase. Some adverse events developed in MIRAPEX ER-treated patients during the titration phase and persisted ( ≥ 7 days) into the maintenance phase (i.e., MIRAPEX ER % -placebo % = treatment difference ≥ 2%); persistent adverse events were dyskinesia and insomnia.
During the development of MIRAPEX ER tablets, no systematic abnormalities on routine laboratory testing were noted. Therefore, no specific guidance is offered regarding routine monitoring; the practitioner retains responsibility for determining how best to monitor the patient in his or her care.
Other adverse events observed during clinical trials of immediate-release pramipexole tablets
Adverse events not listed above but reported on at least two occasions (one occasion if the event was serious) in clinical studies involving 2509 individuals who received pramipexole immediate-release tablets are listed below. The reported events are included without regard to determination of a causal relationship to pramipexole immediate-release tablets.
Cardiac disorders: angina pectoris, arrhythmia supraventricular, atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular block first degree, atrioventricular block second degree, bradycardia, bundle branch block, cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, cardiac failure congestive, cardiomegaly, coronary artery occlusion, cyanosis, extrasystoles, left ventricular failure, myocardial infarction, nodal arrhythmia, sinus arrhythmia, sinus bradycardia, sinus tachycardia, supraventricular extrasystoles, supraventricular tachycardia, tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular hypertrophy
Congenital, familial, and genetic disorders: atrial septal defect, congenital foot malformation, spine malformation
Eye disorders: accommodation abnormalities, amaurosis fugax, blepharitis, blepharospasm, cataract, dacryostenosis acquired, diplopia, dry eye, eye hemorrhage, eye irritation, eye pain, eyelid edema, eyelid ptosis, glaucoma, keratitis, macular degeneration, myopia, photophobia, retinal detachment, retinal vascular disorder, scotoma, vision abnormalities, vision blurred, visual acuity reduced, vitreous floaters
Gastrointestinal disorders: abdominal distension, aphthous stomatitis, ascites, cheilitis, colitis, colitis ulcerative, dyspepsia, dysphagia, duodenal ulcer, duodenal ulcer hemorrhage, enteritis, eructation, fecal incontinence, gastric ulcer, gastric ulcer hemorrhage, gastritis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gingivitis, haematemesis, haematochezia, hemorrhoids, hiatus hernia, hyperchlorhydria, ileus, inguinal hernia, intestinal obstruction, irritable bowel syndrome, esophageal spasm, esophageal stenosis, esophagitis, pancreatitis, periodontitis, rectal hemorrhage, reflux esophagitis, tongue edema, tongue ulceration, toothache, umbilical hernia
General disorders: chest discomfort, chills, death, drug withdrawal syndrome, face edema, feeling cold, feeling hot, feeling jittery, fever, gait disturbance, impaired healing, influenza-like illness, irritability, localized edema, edema, malaise, pitting edema, thirst
Immune system disorders: drug hypersensitivity
Infections and infestations: abscess, acute tonsillitis, appendicitis, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, cellulitis, cystitis, dental caries, diverticulitis, ear infection, eye infection, folliculitis, fungal infection, furuncle, gangrene, gastroenteritis, gingival infection, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, hordeolum, influenza, intervertebral discitis, laryngitis, lobar pneumonia, nail infection, onychomycosis, oral candidiasis, orchitis, osteomyelitis, otitis externa, otitis media, paronychia, pyelonephritis, pyoderma, sepsis, skin infection, tonsillitis, tooth abscess, tooth infection, upper respiratory tract infection, urethritis, vaginal candidiasis, vaginal infection, viral infection, wound infection
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: cachexia, decreased appetite, decreased weight, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, fluid retention, gout, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypovitaminosis, increased creatine PK, metabolic alkalosis
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: bone pain, bursitis, fasciitis, flank pain, intervertebral disc disorder, intervertebral disc protrusion, joint effusion, joint stiffness, joint swelling, monarthritis, muscle rigidity, musculoskeletal stiffness, myasthenia, myopathy, myositis, nuchal rigidity, osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis, osteoporosis, pain in extremity, polymyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, shoulder pain, spinal osteoarthritis, tendonitis, tenosynovitis, twitching
Neoplasms benign, malignant, and unspecified: abdominal neoplasm, adenocarcinoma, adenoma benign, basal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, breast cancer, breast neoplasm, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, gallbladder cancer, gastric cancer, gastrointestinal neoplasm, hemangioma, hepatic neoplasm, hepatic neoplasm malignant, lip and/or oral cavity cancer, lung neoplasm malignant, lung cancer metastatic, lymphoma, malignant melanoma, melanocytic naevus, metastases to lung, multiple myeloma, oral neoplasm benign, neoplasm, neoplasm malignant, neoplasm prostate, neoplasm skin, neuroma, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, prostatic adenoma, pseudo lymphoma, renal neoplasm, skin cancer, skin papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid neoplasm, uterine leiomyoma
Nervous system disorders: ageusia, akinesia, amnesia, akathisia, anticholinergic syndrome, aphasia, brain edema, carotid artery occlusion, carpal tunnel syndrome, cerebral artery embolism, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, cerebral ischemia, chorea, cognitive disorder, coma, convulsion, coordination abnormal, dementia, depressed level of consciousness, disturbance in attention, dizziness postural, dysarthria, dysgraphia, dystonia, extrapyramidal syndrome, facial palsy, grand mal convulsion, hemiplegia, hyperaesthesia, hyperkinesia, hyperreflexia, hyporeflexia, hypertonia, hypesthesia, hypotonia, lethargy, loss of consciousness, memory impairment, migraine, muscle contractions involuntary, myoclonus, narcolepsy, neuralgia, neuropathy, nystagmus, parosmia, psychomotor hyperactivity, sciatica, sedation, sensory disturbance, sleep phase rhythm disturbance, sleep talking, stupor, syncope vasovagal, tension headache, thinking abnormalities
Psychiatric disorders: affect lability, aggression, agitation, bradyphrenia, bruxism, suicide, delirium, delusions, delusional disorder persecutory type, disorientation, dissociation, emotional distress, euphoric mood, initial insomnia, libido increased, mania, middle insomnia, mood altered, nightmare, obsessive thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic reaction, paranoid reaction, parasomnia, personality disorder, psychotic disorder, restlessness, sleep walking, suicidal ideation
Renal and urinary disorders: chromaturia, dysuria, glycosuria, hematuria, urgency, nephrolithiasis, neurogenic bladder, nocturia, oliguria, pollakiuria, proteinuria, renal artery stenosis, renal colic, renal cyst, renal failure, renal impairment, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary tract infection
Reproductive system and breast disorders: amenorrhea, breast pain, dysmenorrhea, epididymitis, gynaecomastia, impotence, menopausal symptoms, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, ovarian cyst, priapism, prostatitis, sexual dysfunction, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal discharge, vaginal hemorrhage
Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders: apnea, aspiration, asthma, choking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dry throat, dysphonia, dyspnea exertional, epistaxis, haemoptysis, hiccups, hyperventilation, increased bronchial secretion, laryngospasm, nasal congestion, nasal dryness, nasal polyps, obstructive airways disorder, pharyngolaryngeal pain, pleurisy, pneumonia, pneumonia aspiration, pneumothorax, postnasal drip, productive cough, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary edema, respiratory alkalosis, respiratory distress, respiratory failure, respiratory tract congestion, rhinitis allergic, rhinorrhea, sinus congestion, sleep apnoea syndrome, sneezing, snoring, tachypnea, wheezing
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: acne, alopecia, cold sweat, dermal cyst, dermatitis, dermatitis bullous, dermatitis contact, dry skin, ecchymosis, eczema, erythema, hyperkeratosis, livedo reticularis, night sweats, periorbital edema, petechiae, photosensitivity allergic reaction, psoriasis, purpura, rash erythematous, rash maculo-papular, rash papular, rosacea, seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, skin burning sensation, skin discoloration, skin disorders, skin exfoliation, skin hyperpigmentation, skin hypertrophy, skin irritation, skin nodule, skin odor abnormal, skin ulcer, urticaria
Vascular disorders: aneurysm, angiopathy, arteriosclerosis, circulatory collapse, deep vein thrombosis, embolism, hematoma, hot flush, hypertensive crisis, lymphoedema, pallor, phlebitis, Raynaud's phenomenon, shock, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis, varicose vein
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of immediate-release pramipexole tablets, primarily in Parkinson's disease patients. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these reactions in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the reaction, (2) frequency of reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to pramipexole tablets. Similar types of events were grouped into a smaller number of standardized categories using the MedDRA terminology: abnormal behavior, abnormal dreams, accidents (including fall), blackouts, compulsive shopping, fatigue, hallucinations (all kinds), headache, hypotension (including postural hypotension), inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), increased eating (including binge eating, compulsive eating, and hyperphagia), libido disorders (including increased and decreased libido, and hypersexuality), pathological gambling, pruritus, syncope, vomiting, and weight increase.
Read the entire FDA prescribing information for Mirapex ER (Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets) »
Additional Mirapex ER Information
Mirapex ER - User Reviews
Mirapex ER User Reviews
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