"Despite the potential for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, contraceptive use in women with certain medical conditions is suboptimal, according to a new study.
Steven W. Champaloux, PhD, MPH, a scientist in the Division of Reproduc"...
Evaluate women for ectopic pregnancy if they become pregnant with Mirena in place because the likelihood of a pregnancy being ectopic is increased with Mirena. Up to half of pregnancies that occur with Mirena in place are likely to be ectopic. Also consider the possibility of ectopic pregnancy in the case of lower abdominal pain, especially in association with missed periods or if an amenorrheic woman starts bleeding.
The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in clinical trials with Mirena, which excluded women with a history of ectopic pregnancy, was approximately 0.1% per year. The risk of ectopic pregnancy, in women who have a history of ectopic pregnancy and use Mirena is unknown. Women with a previous history of ectopic pregnancy, tubal surgery or pelvic infection carry a higher risk of ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy may result in loss of fertility.
If pregnancy occurs while using Mirena, remove Mirena because leaving it in place may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion and preterm labor. Removal of Mirena or probing of the uterus may also result in spontaneous abortion. In the event of an intrauterine pregnancy with Mirena, consider the following:
Continuation of Pregnancy
If a woman becomes pregnant with Mirena in place and if Mirena cannot be removed or the woman chooses not to have it removed, warn her that failure to remove Mirena increases the risk of miscarriage, sepsis, premature labor and premature delivery. Follow her pregnancy closely and advise her to report immediately any symptom that suggests complications of the pregnancy.
Long-Term Effects And Congenital Anomalies
When pregnancy continues with Mirena in place, long-term effects on the offspring are unknown. Congenital anomalies in live births have occurred infrequently. No clear trend towards specific anomalies has been observed. Because of the local exposure of the fetus to LNG, the possibility of teratogenicity following exposure to Mirena cannot be completely excluded. Some observational data support a small increased risk of masculinization of the external genitalia of the female fetus following exposure to progestins at doses greater than those currently used for oral contraception. Whether these data apply to Mirena is unknown.
Severe infection or sepsis, including Group A streptococcal sepsis (GAS), have been reported following insertion of Mirena. In some cases, severe pain occurred within hours of insertion followed by sepsis within days. Because death from GAS is more likely if treatment is delayed, it is important to be aware of these rare but serious infections. Aseptic technique during insertion of Mirena is essential in order to minimize serious infections such as GAS.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Mirena is contraindicated in the presence of known or suspected PID or in women with a history of PID unless there has been a subsequent intrauterine pregnancy [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. IUDs have been associated with an increased risk of PID, most likely due to organisms being introduced into the uterus during insertion. In clinical trials, total combined upper genital infections were reported in 3.5% of Mirena users. More specifically, endometritis was reported in 2.1%, PID in 0.6%, and all other upper genital infections in ≤ 0.5% of women overall. These infections occurred more frequently within the first year. In a clinical trial with other IUDs1 and a clinical trial with an IUD similar to Mirena, the highest rate occurred within the first month after insertion.
Promptly examine users with complaints of lower abdominal or pelvic pain, odorous discharge, unexplained bleeding, fever, genital lesions or sores. Remove Mirena in cases of recurrent endometritis or PID, or if an acute pelvic infection is severe or does not respond to treatment.
Women at Increased Risk for PID
PID is often associated with a sexually transmitted infection, and Mirena does not protect against sexually transmitted infection. The risk of PID is greater for women who have multiple sexual partners, and also for women whose sexual partner(s) have multiple sexual partners. Women who have had PID are at increased risk for a recurrence or re-infection. In particular, ascertain whether the woman is at increased risk of infection (for example, leukemia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], IV drug abuse).
Treatment of PID
Following a diagnosis of PID, or suspected PID, bacteriologic specimens should be obtained and antibiotic therapy should be initiated promptly. Removal of Mirena after initiation of antibiotic therapy is usually appropriate. Guidelines for PID treatment are available from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.
Actinomycosis has been associated with IUDs. Symptomatic women should have Mirena removed and should receive antibiotics. The significance of actinomyces-like organisms on Pap smear in an asymptomatic IUD user is unknown, and so this finding alone does not always require Mirena removal and treatment. When possible, confirm a Pap smear diagnosis with cultures.
Irregular Bleeding And Amenorrhea
Mirena can alter the bleeding pattern and result in spotting, irregular bleeding, heavy bleeding, oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. During the first three to six months of Mirena use, the number of bleeding and spotting days may be increased and bleeding patterns may be irregular. Thereafter the number of bleeding and spotting days usually decreases but bleeding may remain irregular. If bleeding irregularities develop during prolonged treatment, appropriate diagnostic measures should be taken to rule out endometrial pathology.
Amenorrhea develops in approximately 20% of Mirena users by one year. The possibility of pregnancy should be considered if menstruation does not occur within six weeks of the onset of previous menstruation. Once pregnancy has been excluded, repeated pregnancy tests are generally not necessary in amenorrheic women unless indicated, for example, by other signs of pregnancy or by pelvic pain [see Clinical Studies].
In most women with heavy menstrual bleeding, the number of bleeding and spotting days may also increase during the initial months of therapy but usually decrease with continued use; the volume of blood loss per cycle progressively becomes reduced [see Clinical Studies].
Perforation (total or partial, including penetration/embedment of Mirena in the uterine wall or cervix) may occur most often during insertion, although the perforation may not be detected until sometime later. Perforation may reduce contraceptive efficacy and result in pregnancy. The incidence of perforation during clinical trials, which excluded breast-feeding women, was < 0.1%.
If perforation occurs, locate and remove Mirena. Surgery may be required. Delayed detection or removal of Mirena in case of perforation may result in migration outside the uterine cavity, adhesions, peritonitis, intestinal perforations, intestinal obstruction, abscesses and erosion of adjacent viscera.
An interim analysis from a large postmarketing safety study shows an increased risk of perforation in lactating women. The risk of perforation may be increased if Mirena is inserted when the uterus is fixed retroverted or not completely involuted during the postpartum period. Delay Mirena insertion a minimum of six weeks or until involution is complete following a delivery or a second trimester abortion.
Partial or complete expulsion of Mirena may occur resulting in the loss of contraceptive protection. Expulsion may be associated with symptoms of bleeding or pain, or it may be asymptomatic and go unnoticed. Mirena typically decreases menstrual bleeding over time; therefore, an increase of menstrual bleeding may be indicative of an expulsion. The risk of expulsion may be increased when the uterus is not completely involuted. In clinical trials, a 4.5% expulsion rate was reported over the 5-year study duration.
Delay Mirena insertion a minimum of six weeks or until uterine involution is complete following a delivery or a second trimester abortion. Remove a partially expelled Mirena. If expulsion has occurred, Mirena may be replaced within 7 days after the onset of a menstrual period after pregnancy has been ruled out.
Because the contraceptive effect of Mirena is mainly due to its local effects within the uterus, ovulatory cycles with follicular rupture usually occur in women of fertile age using Mirena. Sometime atresia of the follicle is delayed and the follicle may continue to grow. Ovarian cysts have been reported in approximately 8% of women using Mirena. Most of these cysts are asymptomatic, although some may be accompanied by pelvic pain or dyspareunia.
In most cases the ovarian cysts disappear spontaneously during two to three months observation. Evaluate persistent ovarian cysts. Surgical intervention is not usually required.
Women who currently have or have had breast cancer, or have a suspicion of breast cancer, should not use hormonal contraception because some breast cancers are hormone-sensitive [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Spontaneous reports of breast cancer have been received during postmarketing experience with Mirena. Observational studies of the risk of breast cancer with use of a LNG-releasing IUS do not provide conclusive evidence of increased risk.
Clinical Considerations For Use And Removal
Use Mirena with caution after careful assessment if any of the following conditions exist, and consider removal of the system if any of them arise during use:
- Coagulopathy or use of anticoagulants
- Migraine, focal migraine with asymmetrical visual loss or other symptoms indicating transient cerebral ischemia
- Exceptionally severe headache
- Marked increase of blood pressure
- Severe arterial disease such as stroke or myocardial infarction
In addition, consider removing Mirena if any of the following conditions arise during use [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]:
- Uterine or cervical malignancy
If the threads are not visible or are significantly shortened they may have broken or retracted into the cervical canal or uterus. Consider the possibility that the system may have been displaced (for example, expelled or perforated the uterus) [see under Perforation and Expulsion above]. Exclude pregnancy and verify the location of Mirena, for example, by sonography, X-ray, or by gentle exploration of the cervical canal with a suitable instrument. If Mirena is displaced, remove it. A new Mirena may be inserted at that time or during the next menses if it is certain that conception has not occurred. If Mirena is in place with no evidence of perforation, no intervention is indicated.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION)
- Counsel the patient that this product does not protect against HIV infection (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
- Counsel the patient on the benefits, risks, and side effects of Mirena prior to insertion. Provide the Patient Information Booklet and give her the opportunity to read the information and discuss fully any questions she may have concerning Mirena as well as other methods of contraception and therapies for heavy menstrual bleeding. Advise the patient that the Full Prescribing Information is available to her upon request.
- Inform the patient about the risks of ectopic pregnancy, including the loss of fertility. Teach her to recognize and report to her healthcare provider promptly any symptoms of ectopic pregnancy.
- Inform the patient about the possibility of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and that PID can cause tubal damage leading to ectopic pregnancy or infertility, or infrequently can necessitate hysterectomy, or cause death. Teach patients to recognize and report to their healthcare provider promptly any symptoms of PID. These symptoms include development of menstrual disorders (prolonged or heavy bleeding), unusual vaginal discharge, abdominal or pelvic pain or tenderness, dyspareunia, chills, and fever.
- Counsel the patient that irregular or prolonged bleeding and spotting, and/or cramps may occur during the first few weeks after insertion. If her symptoms continue or are severe she should report them to her healthcare provider.
- Counsel the patient on how she can check that the threads still protrude from the cervix and caution her not to pull on the threads and displace Mirena. Inform her that there is no contraceptive protection if Mirena is displaced or expelled. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS.]
- Instruct the patient to contact her healthcare provider
if she experiences any of the following:
- A stroke or heart attack
- Very severe or migraine headaches
- Unexplained fever
- Yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, as these may be signs of serious liver problems
- Pregnancy or suspected pregnancy
- Pelvic pain or pain during sex
- HIV positive seroconversion in herself or her partner
- Possible exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
- Unusual vaginal discharge or genital sores
- Severe vaginal bleeding or bleeding that lasts a long time, or if she misses a menstrual period
- Inability to feel Mirena's threads
- Complete the Follow-up Reminder Card and give to the patient.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
[See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Use In Specific Populations
The use of Mirena during an existing or suspected pregnancy is contraindicated. Many studies have found no harmful effects on fetal development associated with long-term use of contraceptive doses of oral progestins. The few studies of infant growth and development that have been conducted with progestin-only pills have not demonstrated significant adverse effects. [See CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
In general, no adverse effects of progestin-only contraceptives have been found on breastfeeding performance or on the health, growth, or development of the infant. Isolated postmarketing cases of decreased milk production have been reported. Small amounts of progestins were observed to pass into the breast milk of nursing mothers who used Mirena, resulting in detectable steroid levels in infant serum. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Safety and efficacy of Mirena have been established in women of reproductive age. Efficacy is expected to be the same for postpubertal females under the age of 18 as for users 18 years and older. Use of this product before menarche is not indicated.
Mirena has not been studied in women over age 65 and is not approved for use in this population.
No studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of hepatic disease on the disposition of LNG released from Mirena [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
No studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of renal disease on the disposition of LNG released from Mirena.
1Farley T M M, Rosenberg M J, Rowe P J, Chen J, Meirik O. Intrauterine devices and pelvic inflammatory disease: an international perspective. Lancet 1992; 339:785-788.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/6/2015
Additional Mirena Information
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