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Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years' duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events.
Gastrointestinal (GI) Effects - Risk of GI Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation
NSAIDs, including MOBIC, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs, occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2% to 4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
Prescribe NSAIDs, including MOBIC, with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during MOBIC therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of MOBIC until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high-risk patients, consider alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs.
Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including MOBIC. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with MOBIC. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue MOBIC [see Use In Specific Populations and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
NSAIDs, including MOBIC, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. NSAIDs, including MOBIC, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Patients taking ACE inhibitors, thiazides, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs.
Congestive Heart Failure and Edema
Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Use MOBIC with caution in patients with fluid retention, hypertension, or heart failure.
Long-term administration of NSAIDs, including MOBIC, can result in renal papillary necrosis, renal insufficiency, acute renal failure, and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics, ACE-inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
A pharmacokinetic study in patients with mild and moderate renal impairment revealed that no dosage adjustments in these patient populations are required. Patients with severe renal impairment have not been studied. The use of MOBIC in patients with severe renal impairment with CrCl less than 20 mL/min is not recommended. A study performed in patients on hemodialysis revealed that although overall Cmax was diminished in this population, the proportion of free drug not bound to plasma was increased. Therefore it is recommended that meloxicam dosage in this population not exceed 7.5 mg per day. Closely monitor the renal function of patients with impaired renal function who are taking MOBIC [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use in Specific Populations, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Use caution when initiating treatment with MOBIC in patients with considerable dehydration. It is advisable to rehydrate patients first and then start therapy with MOBIC. Caution is also recommended in patients with pre-existing kidney disease.
The extent to which metabolites may accumulate in patients with renal impairment has not been studied with MOBIC. Because some MOBIC metabolites are excreted by the kidney, monitor patients with significant renal impairment closely.
As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients without known prior exposure to MOBIC. MOBIC should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Seek emergency help in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.
Adverse Skin Reactions
NSAIDs, including MOBIC, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and discontinue use of the drug at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
MOBIC cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Slowly taper patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.
Masking of Inflammation and Fever
The pharmacological activity of MOBIC in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.
Anemia may occur in patients receiving NSAIDs, including MOBIC. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including MOBIC, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.
NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Carefully monitor patients treated with MOBIC who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants.
Use in Patients with Pre-existing Asthma
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, MOBIC should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with pre-existing asthma.
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, MOBIC should be discontinued.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved Medication Guide
Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.
Inform patients of the availability of a Medication Guide for NSAIDs that accompanies each prescription dispensed, and instruct them to read the Medication Guide prior to using MOBIC.
NSAIDs including MOBIC may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
NSAIDs including MOBIC, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Adverse Skin Reactions
NSAIDs including MOBIC, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Advise patients to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Weight Gain and Edema
Advise patients to promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Effects During Pregnancy
Effects On Female Fertility Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including
MOBIC, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation For women who have difficulties conceiving, or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, use of meloxicam is not recommended [see Use in Specific Populations].
Please address medical inquiries to (800) 542-6257 or (800) 459-9906 TTY.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
There was no increase in tumor incidence in long-term carcinogenicity studies in rats (104 weeks) and mice (99 weeks) administered meloxicam at oral doses up to 0.8 mg/kg/day in rats and up to 8.0 mg/kg/day in mice (up to 0.5- and 2.6-fold, respectively, the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparison).
Meloxicam was not mutagenic in an Ames assay, or clastogenic in a chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes and an in vivo micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow.
Impairment of Fertility
Meloxicam did not impair male and female fertility in rats at oral doses up to 9 mg/kg/day in males and 5 mg/kg/day in females (up to 5.8- and 3.2-fold greater, respectively, than the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparison).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C; Category D starting 30 weeks gestation
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Meloxicam crosses the placental barrier. Prior to 30 weeks gestation, use MOBIC during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Starting at 30 weeks gestation, avoid MOBIC and other NSAIDs, in pregnant women as premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in the fetus may occur. If this drug is used during this time period in pregnancy, inform the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and PATIENT INFORMATION].
Meloxicam was not teratogenic when administered to pregnant rats during fetal organogenesis at oral doses up to 4 mg/kg/day (2.6-fold greater than the maximum recommended human daily dose [MRHD] based on body surface area [BSA] comparison). Administration of meloxicam to pregnant rabbits throughout embryogenesis produced an increased incidence of septal defects of the heart at an oral dose of 60 mg/kg/day. The no effect level was 20 mg/kg/day (26-fold greater than the MRHD based on BSA conversion).
In rats and rabbits, embryolethality occurred at oral meloxicam doses of 1 mg/kg/day and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively (0.65-and 6.5-fold greater, respectively, than the MRHD based on BSA comparison) when administered throughout organogenesis.
Labor and Delivery
The effects of MOBIC on labor and delivery of pregnant women are unknown. Oral administration of meloxicam to pregnant rats during late gestation through lactation increased the incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased offspring survival at meloxicam doses of 0.125 mg/kg/day or greater (at least 12.5 times lower than the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area comparison).
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk; however, meloxicam was excreted in the milk of lactating rats at concentrations higher than those in plasma. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from MOBIC, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness of meloxicam in pediatric JRA patients from 2 to 17 years of age has been evaluated in three clinical trials [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, ADVERSE REACTIONS, and Clinical Studies].
As with any NSAID, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older).
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies, 5157 were age 65 and over (4044 in OA studies and 1113 in RA studies). No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Patients with severe hepatic impairment have not been adequately studied. Since meloxicam is significantly metabolized in the liver; the use of meloxicam in these patients should be done with caution [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Patients with severe renal impairment have not been studied. The use of MOBIC in subjects with severe renal impairment is not recommended. Following a single dose of meloxicam, the free Cmax plasma concentrations were higher in patients with renal failure on chronic hemodialysis (1% free fraction) in comparison to healthy volunteers (0.3% free fraction). Therefore, it is recommended that meloxicam dosage in this population not exceed 7.5 mg per day. Hemodialysis did not lower the total drug concentration in plasma; therefore, additional doses are not necessary after hemodialysis. Meloxicam is not dialyzable [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Females of Reproductive Potential
Data from several small studies in humans and from studies in animals indicate that NSAIDs, including MOBIC, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation. Therefore, in women who have difficulties conceiving, or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, use of meloxicam is not recommended.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/13/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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