Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP
Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP is the Chair of the Department of Medicine at Michigan State University. She is a graduate of Vanderbilt Medical School, and completed her residency in Internal Medicine and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at Indiana University.
In this Article
- Monkeypox facts
- What is monkeypox?
- What is the history of monkeypox?
- What causes monkeypox? How is monkeypox transmitted?
- What are risk factors for monkeypox?
- What are monkeypox symptoms and signs?
- How is monkeypox diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for monkeypox?
- What is the prognosis of monkeypox?
- Can monkeypox be prevented?
- What research is being done on monkeypox?
- Where can people get more information about monkeypox?
What are monkeypox symptoms and signs?
The first symptoms that occur are
How is monkeypox diagnosed?
The history (especially association with rodents or other animals) and physical exam (present of pox lesions) is presumptive evidence for a diagnosis of monkeypox. Caution is advised. Infectious-disease consultants and CDC personnel should be notified because this infection may represent two additional problems. First, in the U.S. or other countries, it may likely indicate an outbreak of monkeypox, and informed health authorities may help to identify the source of the infection and prevent its spread. The second problem is unlikely but far more serious; the early symptoms may represent a biological warfare or terrorist attack with smallpox that is mistakenly identified as monkeypox. Consequently, definitive diagnosis of this viral disease, outside of Africa, and especially in developed countries where monkeypox is not endemic, is urged. Most laboratories do not have the reagents to do this testing, so state labs or the CDC will need to process the samples to establish a definitive diagnosis. These tests are based on detecting antigenic structures (usually from skin or pox samples or occasionally serum) specific to either monkeypox virus or immunoglobulin that reacts with the virus. PCR (polymerase chain reaction), ELISA techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), or Western blotting tests (immunoblotting) are the main tests used.
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