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Monopril HCT

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Monopril HCT

SIDE EFFECTS

MONOPRIL-HCT (fosinopril sodium-hydrochlorothiazide tablets) has been evaluated for safety in over 660 patients with hypertension; approximately 137 of these patients were treated for more than one year. The observed adverse events were generally mild, transient, and similar to those seen with fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide taken separately. There was no relationship between the incidence of side effects and age.

In placebo-controlled clinical trials of MONOPRIL-HCT, the usual duration of therapy was two months. Adverse clinical or laboratory events led to discontinuation of therapy by 4.3% of 368 placebo-treated patients and by 3.5% of 660 MONOPRIL-HCT-treated patients.

The most common reasons for discontinuation of therapy with MONOPRIL-HCT in U.S. studies were headache (0.3%), cough (0.3%; see PRECAUTIONS), and fatigue (0.2%).

The side effects considered probably or possibly related to study drug that occurred in placebo-controlled trials in more than 2% of patients treated with MONOPRIL-HCT are shown in the table below.

Reactions Possibly or Probably Drug-Related (Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Studies)

  MONOPRIL-HCT
(N=660)
%
Placebo
(N=368)
%
Headache 7.0 12.8
Cough 5.6 1.1
Fatigue 3.9 2.4
Dizziness 3.2 2.2
Upper Respiratory Infection 2.3 2.7
Musculoskeletal Pain 2.0 1.9

Other side effects considered possibly or probably related to study drug that occurred in controlled trials in 0.5% to < 2.0% of patients treated with MONOPRIL-HCT, and rarer but clinically significant events regardless of causal relationship were:

General: Chest pain, weakness, fever, viral infection.

Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension (seen in 1.8% of MONOPRIL-HCT patients and 0.3% of placebo patients; no patients discontinued therapy due to orthostatic hypotension), edema, flushing, rhythm disturbance, syncope.

Dermatologic: Pruritus, rash.

Endocrine/Metabolic: Sexual dysfunction, change in libido, breast mass.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, dyspepsia/heartburn, abdominal pain, gastritis/esophagitis.

Immunologic: Angioedema (see WARNINGS: Head and Neck Angioedema and Intestinal Angioedema).

Musculoskeletal: Myalgia/muscle cramps.

Neurologic/Psychiatric: Somnolence, depression, numbness/paresthesia.

Respiratory: Sinus congestion, pharyngitis, rhinitis.

Special Senses: Tinnitus.

Urogenital: Urinary tract infection, urinary frequency, dysuria.

Laboratory Test Abnormalities: Serum electrolytes, uric acid, glucose, magnesium, cholesterol, triglycerides, and calcium (see PRECAUTIONS). Neutropenia.

Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality

See WARNINGS: Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality.

Antihypertensive monotherapy with fosinopril has been evaluated for safety in more than 1500 patients, of whom approximately 450 patients were treated for a year or more. The observed adverse events included events similar to those seen with MONOPRIL-HCT; in addition, the following others have also been reported with fosinopril:

Cardiovascular: Angina, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, hypertensive crisis, hypotension, claudication.

Dermatologic: Urticaria, photosensitivity.

Endocrine/Metabolic: Gout.

Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis, hepatitis, dysphagia, abdominal distention, flatulence, appetite/weight change, dry mouth.

Hematologic: Lymphadenopathy.

Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia.

Neurologic/Psychiatric: Memory disturbance, tremor, confusion, mood change, sleep disturbance.

Respiratory: Bronchospasm, laryngitis/hoarseness, epistaxis, and (in two patients) a symptom-complex of cough, bronchospasm, and eosinophilia.

Special Senses: Vision disturbance, taste disturbance, eye irritation.

Urogenital: Renal insufficiency.

Laboratory Test Abnormalities: Elevations (usually transient and minor) of BUN and creatinine have been observed, but these have not been more frequent than in parallel patients treated with placebo. The hemoglobin in fosinopril-treated patients generally decreases by an average of 0.1 g/dL, but this nonprogressive change has never been symptomatic. Leukopenia and eosinophilia have also been reported.

Serum levels of liver function tests (transaminases, LDH, alkaline phosphatase and serum bilirubin) have occasionally been found to be elevated, and these elevations have lead to discontinuation of therapy in 0.7% of patients. Other risk factors for liver dysfunction have often been present in these cases; in any event the elevations generally have resolved after discontinuation of therapy with fosinopril.

Other Adverse Events Reported with ACE Inhibitors

Other adverse effects reported with ACE inhibitors include cardiac arrest; pancytopenia, hemolytic anemia; aplastic anemia; thrombocytopenia; bullous pemphigus, exfoliative dermatitis; and a syndrome that may include one or more of arthralgia/arthritis, vasculitis, serositis, myalgia, fever, rash or other dermopathy, positive ANA titer, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and elevated ESR.

Hydrochlorothiazide has now been extensively prescribed for many years, but there has not been enough systematic collection of data to support an estimate of the frequency of the observed adverse reactions. Within organ-system groups, the reported reactions are listed here in decreasing order of severity, without regard to frequency.

Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension (may be potentiated by alcohol, barbiturates, or narcotics).

Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic), sialadenitis, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping, nausea, gastric irritation, constipation, and anorexia.

Hematologic: Aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia.

Immunologic: Necrotizing angiitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, respiratory distress (including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema), anaphylactic reactions, purpura, urticaria, rash, and photosensitivity.

Metabolic: Hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and hyperuricemia.

Musculoskeletal: Muscle spasm.

Neurologic: Vertigo, lightheadedness, transient blurred vision, headache, paresthesia, xanthopsia, weakness, and restlessness.

Read the Monopril HCT (fosinopril sodium-hydrochlorothiazide tablets) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Potassium supplements and potassium-sparing diuretics

As noted above (“Derangements of Serum Electrolytes”), the net effect of MONOPRIL-HCT may be to elevate a patient's serum potassium, to reduce it, or to leave it unchanged. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene, and others) or potassium supplements can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. If concomitant use of such agents is indicated, they should be given with caution, and the patient's serum potassium should be monitored frequently.

Lithium

Increased serum lithium levels and symptoms of lithium toxicity have been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors during therapy with lithium. Because renal clearance of lithium is reduced by thiazides, the risk of lithium toxicity is presumably raised further when, as in therapy with MONOPRIL-HCT (fosinopril sodium-hydrochlorothiazide tablets), a thiazide diuretic is coadministered with the ACE inhibitor. MONOPRIL-HCT and lithium should be coadministered with caution, and frequent monitoring of serum lithium levels is recommended.

Antacids

In a clinical pharmacology study, serum levels and urinary excretion of fosinoprilat were reduced when fosinopril was coadministered with an antacid (aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and simethicone) suggesting that antacids may impair absorption of fosinopril. If concomitant administration of these agents is indicated, dosing should be separated by 2 hours.

Gold

Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including MONOPRIL-HCT.

Other

The bioavailability of unbound fosinoprilat is not altered by coadministration of fosinopril with aspirin, chlorthalidone, cimetidine, digoxin, metoclopramide, nifedipine, propranolol, propantheline, or warfarin. Other ACE inhibitors have had less than additive effects with beta-adrenergic blockers, presumably because drugs of both classes lower blood pressure by inhibiting parts of the renin-angiotensin system.

Interaction studies with warfarin have failed to identify any clinically important effects of fosinopril on the serum concentration or clinical effects of the anticoagulant.

Insulin requirements in diabetic patients may be increased, decreased, or unchanged.

Thiazides may decrease arterial responsiveness to norepinephrine, but not enough to preclude effectiveness of the pressor agent for therapeutic use.

Thiazides may increase the responsiveness to tubocurarine.

The diuretic, natriuretic, and antihypertensive effects of thiazide diuretics may be reduced by concurrent administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents; the effects (if any) of these agents on the antihypertensive effect of MONOPRIL-HCT have not been studied.

By alkalinizing the urine, hydrochlorothiazide may decrease the effectiveness of methenamine.

Cholestyramine and colestipol resins

Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins. Single doses of either cholestyramine or colestipol resins bind the hydrochlorothiazide and reduce its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by up to 85% and 43%, respectively.

Read the Monopril HCT Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Last reviewed on RxList: 7/1/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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