"Oct. 28, 2012 -- Flu vaccines may do more than guard against infection. New research hints that the vaccine, which is recommended for all adults, may also help the heart.
Two new studies presented at the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular C"...
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Details with Side Effects
Cardiovascular Death In NYHA Class IV Or Decompensated Heart Failure
MULTAQ is contraindicated in patients with NYHA Class IV heart failure or symptomatic heart failure with recent decompensation requiring hospitalization because it doubles the risk of death.
Cardiovascular Death And Heart Failure In Permanent AF
MULTAQ doubles the risk of cardiovascular death (largely arrhythmic) and heart failure events in patients with permanent AF. Patients treated with dronedarone should undergo monitoring of cardiac rhythm no less often than every 3 months. Cardiovert patients who are in atrial fibrillation (if clinically indicated) or discontinue MULTAQ. MULTAQ offers no benefit in subjects in permanent AF.
Increased Risk Of Stroke In Permanent AF
In a placebo-controlled study in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation, dronedarone was associated with an increased risk of stroke, particularly in the first two weeks of therapy [see Clinical Studies]. MULTAQ should only be initiated in patients in sinus rhythm who are receiving appropriate antithrombotic therapy [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
New Onset Or Worsening Heart Failure
New onset or worsening of heart failure has been reported during treatment with MULTAQ in the postmarketing setting. In a placebo controlled study in patients with permanent AF increased rates of heart failure were observed in patients with normal left ventricular function and no history of symptomatic heart failure, as well as those with a history of heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction.
Advise patients to consult a physician if they develop signs or symptoms of heart failure, such as weight gain, dependent edema, or increasing shortness of breath. If heart failure develops or worsens and requires hospitalization, discontinue MULTAQ.
Hepatocellular liver injury, including acute liver failure requiring transplant, has been reported in patients treated with MULTAQ in the postmarketing setting. Advise patients treated with MULTAQ to report immediately symptoms suggesting hepatic injury (such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fever, malaise, fatigue, right upper quadrant pain, jaundice, dark urine, or itching). Consider obtaining periodic hepatic serum enzymes, especially during the first 6 months of treatment, but it is not known whether routine periodic monitoring of serum enzymes will prevent the development of severe liver injury. If hepatic injury is suspected, promptly discontinue MULTAQ and test serum enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase, as well as serum bilirubin, to establish whether there is liver injury. If liver injury is found, institute appropriate treatment and investigate the probable cause. Do not restart MULTAQ in patients without another explanation for the observed liver injury.
Cases of interstitial lung disease including pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis have been reported in patients treated with MULTAQ in the post-marketing setting [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Onset of dyspnea or non-productive cough may be related to pulmonary toxicity and patients should be carefully evaluated clinically. If pulmonary toxicity is confirmed, MULTAQ should be discontinued.
Hypokalemia And Hypomagnesemia With Potassium-Depleting Diuretics
Hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia may occur with concomitant administration of potassium-depleting diuretics. Potassium levels should be within the normal range prior to administration of MULTAQ and maintained in the normal range during administration of MULTAQ.
QT Interval Prolongation
Dronedarone induces a moderate (average of about 10 ms but much greater effects have been observed) QTc (Bazett) prolongation [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and Clinical Studies]. If the QTc Bazett interval is ≥ 500 ms, discontinue MULTAQ [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Renal Impairment And Failure
Marked increase in serum creatinine, pre-renal azotemia and acute renal failure, often in the setting of heart failure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] or hypovolemia, have been reported in patients taking MULTAQ. In most cases, these effects appear to be reversible upon drug discontinuation and with appropriate medical treatment. Monitor renal function periodically.
Small increases in creatinine levels (about 0.1 mg/dL) following dronedarone treatment initiation have been shown to be a result of inhibition of creatinine's tubular secretion. The elevation has a rapid onset, reaches a plateau after 7 days and is reversible after discontinuation.
Women Of Childbearing Potential
Premenopausal women who have not undergone a hysterectomy or oophorectomy must use effective contraception while using MULTAQ. Dronedarone caused fetal harm in animal studies at doses equivalent to recommended human doses. Counsel women of childbearing potential regarding appropriate contraceptive choices [see Use In Specific Populations].
Patient Counseling Information
Information for Patients
[See Medication Guide]
MULTAQ should be administered with a meal. Warn patients not to take MULTAQ with grapefruit juice.
If a dose is missed, patients should take the next dose at the regularly scheduled time and should not double the dose.
Advise patients to consult a physician before stopping treatment with MULTAQ.
Advise patients to consult a physician if they develop signs or symptoms of heart failure such as acute weight gain, dependent edema, or increasing shortness of breath.
Advise patients to immediately report any symptoms of potential liver injury (such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fever, malaise, fatigue, right upper quadrant abdominal discomfort, jaundice, dark urine or itching) to their physician.
Advise patients to inform their physician of any history of heart failure, rhythm disturbance other than atrial fibrillation or flutter or predisposing conditions such as uncorrected hypokalemia.
MULTAQ may interact with some drugs; therefore, advise patients to report to their doctor the use of any other prescription, non-prescription medication or herbal products, particularly St. John's wort.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
In studies in which dronedarone was administered to rats and mice for up to 2 years at doses of up to 70 mg/kg/day and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively, there was an increased incidence of histiocytic sarcomas in dronedarone-treated male mice (300 mg/kg/day or 5X the maximum recommended human dose based on AUC comparisons), mammary adenocarcinomas in dronedarone-treated female mice (300 mg/kg/day or 8X MRHD based on AUC comparisons) and hemangiomas in dronedarone-treated male rats (70 mg/kg/day or 5X MRHD based on AUC comparisons).
Dronedarone did not demonstrate genotoxic potential in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test, the Ames bacterial mutation assay, the unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, or an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes. S-9 processed dronedarone, however, was positive in a V79 transfected Chinese hamster V79 assay.
In fertility studies conducted with female rats, dronedarone given prior to breeding and implantation caused an increase in irregular estrus cycles and cessation of cycling at doses ≥ 10mg/kg (equivalent to 0.12X the MRHD on a mg/m² basis).
Corpora lutea, implantations and live fetuses were decreased at 100 mg/kg (equivalent to 1.2X the MRHD on a mg/m² basis). There were no reported effects on mating behavior or fertility of male rats at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category X [see CONTRAINDICATIONS] MULTAQ may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In animal studies, dronedarone was teratogenic in rats at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), and in rabbits at half the MRHD. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
When pregnant rats received dronedarone at oral doses greater than or equal to the MRHD (on a mg/m²basis), fetuses had increased rates of external, visceral and skeletal malformations (cranioschisis, cleft palate, incomplete evagination of pineal body, brachygnathia, partially fused carotid arteries, truncus arteriosus, abnormal lobation of the liver, partially duplicated inferior vena cava, brachydactyly, ectrodactylia, syndactylia, and anterior and/or posterior club feet). When pregnant rabbits received dronedarone, at a dose approximately half the MRHD (on a mg/m²basis), fetuses had an increased rate of skeletal abnormalities (anomalous ribcage and vertebrae, pelvic asymmetry) at doses ≥ 20 mg/kg (the lowest dose tested and approximately half the MRHD on a mg/m²basis).
Actual animal doses: rat ( ≥ 80 mg/kg/day); rabbit ( ≥ 20 mg/kg)
It is not known whether MULTAQ is excreted in human milk. Dronedarone and its metabolites are excreted in rat milk. During a pre-and post-natal study in rats, maternal dronedarone administration was associated with minor reduced body-weight gain in the offspring. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from MULTAQ, discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Safety and efficacy in children below the age of 18 years have not been established.
More than 4500 patients with AF or AFL aged 65 years or above were included in the MULTAQ clinical program (of whom more than 2000 patients were 75 years or older). Efficacy and safety were similar in elderly and younger patients.
Patients with renal impairment were included in clinical studies. Because renal excretion of dronedarone is minimal [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], no dosing alteration is needed.
Dronedarone is extensively metabolized by the liver. There is little clinical experience with moderate hepatic impairment and none with severe impairment. No dosage adjustment is recommended for moderate hepatic impairment [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/10/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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