March 27, 2017
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Multiple Myeloma (cont.)

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What is multiple myeloma? What are plasma cells?

Multiple myeloma definition

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer of the plasma cells of the bone marrow. These are protein-making cells that normally make all of the different kinds of antibodies of the immune system. In multiple myeloma, the plasma cells undergo what is referred to as a malignant transformation and become cancerous. These myeloma cells stop making different forms of protein in response to the immune system's needs and instead start to produce a single abnormal type of protein, a monoclonal or M protein. Multiple myeloma plasma cell populations accumulate in the bone marrow and these collections of cells called plasmacytomas can erode the hard outer shell or cortex of the bone that normally surrounds the marrow. These weakened bones show thinning of the bone such as is seen in nonmalignant osteoporosis or what appear to be punched out or lytic bone lesions. These lesions may cause pain and even breaks or fractures of the weakened bones. They may cause other systemic problems listed below. Multiple myeloma is often referred to simply as myeloma (also termed Kahler's disease after the physician who first described this cancer). The disease usually occurs in people past middle-age. However, rarely it is possible to occur in a child.

What causes multiple myeloma?

What triggers the malignancy of plasma cells in multiple myeloma is not known. The cancerous myeloma plasma cells proliferate and crowd out normal plasma cells and can etch away areas of bones. The proteins produced in large amounts can cause many of the symptoms of the disease by making the blood more thickened (viscous) and depositing the proteins in organs that can interfere with the functions of the kidneys, nerves, and immune system.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 2/27/2017

Source: MedicineNet.com
http://www.medicinenet.com/multiple_myeloma/article.htm

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