Multiple Sclerosis (MS) (cont.)
Danette C. Taylor, DO, MS, FACN
Dr. Taylor has a passion for treating patients as individuals. In practice since 1994, she has a wide range of experience in treating patients with many types of movement disorders and dementias. In addition to patient care, she is actively involved in the training of residents and medical students, and has been both primary and secondary investigator in numerous research studies through the years. She is a Clinical Assistant Professor at Michigan State University's College of Osteopathic Medicine (Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology). She graduated with a BS degree from Alma College, and an MS (biomechanics) from Michigan State University. She received her medical degree from Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Her internship and residency were completed at Botsford General Hospital. Additionally, she completed a fellowship in movement disorders with Dr. Peter LeWitt. She has been named a fellow of the American College of Neuropsychiatrists. She is board-certified in neurology by the American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry. She has authored several articles and lectured extensively; she continues to write questions for two national medical boards. Dr. Taylor is a member of the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MSAC) of the Alzheimer's Association of Michigan, and is a reviewer for the journal Clinical Neuropharmacology.
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
In this Article
- Multiple sclerosis (MS) facts
- What is the definition of multiple sclerosis (MS)?
- What is multiple sclerosis (MS)?
- What causes multiple sclerosis?
- What are the risk factors for developing multiple sclerosis?
- What are MS symptoms and signs?
- What are the different types of MS?
- How do doctors diagnose multiple sclerosis?
- What are multiple sclerosis treatment options?
- MS medications
- What is the treatment for MS symptoms?
- What is the prognosis and life expectancy for multiple sclerosis?
- Is it possible to prevent multiple sclerosis?
- What research is being done on MS?
- Multiple Sclerosis (MS) FAQs
- Find a local Neurologist in your town
What are multiple sclerosis treatment options?
Many factors go into consideration for the treatment of a patient who has MS. During an acute exacerbation, steroids given through an IV are commonly prescribed, and often help patients recover more rapidly. If a patient cannot receive steroids, plasma exchange can be used.
Once a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis has been confirmed, disease-modifying therapy is often recommended. This therapy may decrease the number of exacerbations that a patient experiences or decrease the severity of an exacerbation. In addition, many of these therapies have been shown to decrease the potential for developing long-term disability.
Interferon therapies (Avonex, Betaseron, Extavia, Rebif, Plegridy) must be given by an injection. The frequency of injections ranges from every other day to every other week. Some patients develop flu-like symptoms or nodules under the skin following each injection; other patients may develop severe depression.
glatiramer acetate (Copaxone)
Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) works along a different path than the interferons, but is still thought to modify the immune system and has been shown to reduce relapses. There are some oral medications which have been approved to treat MS, including fingolimod (Gilenya) and teriflunomide (Aubagio).
Although these medications are dosed orally, there is a risk of significant side effects:
- including heart disease (fingolimod), or
- severe liver injury (teriflunomide).
Another oral agent, dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera), may function by preventing immune cells from attacking cells located in the central nervous system, and may have anti-inflammatory properties.
Dalfampridine (Ampyra), has been approved to specifically help with walking problems caused by MS. The specific way in which this medication works is unknown. There is a risk that this medication may cause seizures, even in patients without a history of seizure or epilepsy. As such, the use of this medication needs to be monitored carefully.
Learn more about: Ampyra
Natalizumab (Tysabri) is a monoclonal antibody, and has been approved for patients who have relapsing-remitting MS. Because of significant side effects, including the risk of severe brain infection, it is typically used for patients who have failed to respond to one of the interferon products or who have been diagnosed with very active disease.
Learn more about: Tysabri
Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) can also decrease the relapse rate in relapsing-remitting MS. However, because of the risk of serious side effects, it is currently limited to use in patients who have failed other agents.
Learn more about: Lemtrada
Mitoxantrone (Novantrone) is a chemotherapy agent for leukemia or prostate cancer, which has been shown to be of benefit in treating secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis, and advanced relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Learn more about: Novantrone
Of note, mitoxantrone and Betaseron are the only medications identified to help patients with relapsing-primary multiple sclerosis.
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