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Mechanism Of Action
Adipocytes store lipids to meet the fuel requirements of non-adipose tissues during fasting. In patients with generalized lipodystrophy, the deficiency of adipose tissue leads to hypertriglyceridemia and ectopic deposition of fat in non-adipose tissues such as liver and muscle, contributing to metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance. Native leptin is a hormone predominantly secreted by adipose tissue that informs the central nervous system of the status of energy stores in the body. In patients with generalized lipodystrophy, leptin deficiency, resulting from the loss of adipose tissue, contributes to excess caloric intake, which exacerbates the metabolic abnormalities.
MYALEPT (metreleptin) for injection exerts its function by binding to and activating the human leptin receptor (ObR), which belongs to the Class I cytokine family of receptors that signals through the JAK/STAT transduction pathway.
Clinical studies in patients with generalized lipodystrophy suggest that MYALEPT increases insulin sensitivity and reduces food intake. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and reductions in food intake are consistent with lower HbA1c, fasting glucose, and fasting triglyceride values that were seen in the MYALEPT clinical trial [see Clinical Studies].
There are limited data on the pharmacokinetics of metreleptin in patients with generalized lipodystrophy, and therefore, no formal exposure-response analysis has been performed. It should be noted that the leptin assay measures both endogenous leptin as well as exogenously administered metreleptin.
Peak serum leptin concentration (Cmax) occurred approximately 4.0 to 4.3 hours after subcutaneous administration of single doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg in healthy subjects. In a supportive trial in lipodystrophy patients, the median Tmax of metreleptin was 4 hours (range: 2 to 8 hours; N=5) following single-dose administration of metreleptin.
In studies of healthy adult subjects, following intravenous administration of metreleptin, leptin volume of distribution was approximately 4 to 5 times plasma volume; volumes (Vz) (mean ± SD) were 370 ± 184 mL/kg, 398 ± 92 mL/kg, and 463 ± 116 mL/kg for 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg/day doses, respectively.
Metabolism and Elimination
No formal metabolism studies have been conducted with metreleptin. Nonclinical data indicate renal clearance is the major route of metreleptin elimination, with no apparent contribution of systemic metabolism or degradation. Following single subcutaneous doses of 0.01 to 0.3 mg/mL metreleptin in healthy subjects, the half-life was 3.8 to 4.7 hours. The clearance of metreleptin is expected to be delayed in the presence of leptin antibodies [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
No drug interaction studies have been conducted in lipodystrophy patients [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
No formal pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in patients with renal impairment. Nonclinical data indicate renal clearance is the major route of metreleptin elimination, with no apparent contribution of systemic metabolism or degradation. Hence, the pharmacokinetics of metreleptin may be altered in subjects with renal impairment.
No formal pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in patients with hepatic impairment.
Age, Gender, Race, Body Mass Index
Specific clinical studies have not been conducted to assess the effect of age, gender, race, or body mass index on the pharmacokinetics of metreleptin in patients with generalized lipodystrophy.
Open-Label, Single-Arm Study
An open-label, single-arm study evaluated MYALEPT treatment in patients with congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy and diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and/or increased fasting insulin.
Baseline Disease Characteristics and Demographics
Of the 48 patients enrolled, 32 (67%) had congenital generalized lipodystrophy and 16 (33%) had acquired generalized lipodystrophy. Overall, 36 (75%) patients were female, 22 (46%) were Caucasian, 10 (21%) Hispanic, and 9 (19%) Black. The median age at baseline was 15 years (range: 1 -68 years), with 35 (73%) patients being less than 18 years of age. The median fasting leptin concentration at baseline was 0.7 ng/mL in males (range: 0.3 -3.3 ng/mL) and 1.0 ng/mL in females (range: 0.3 -3.3 ng/mL).
Treatment Duration and Dosage in the Study
The median duration of MYALEPT treatment was 2.7 years (range: 3.6 months -10.9 years). MYALEPT was administered subcutaneously either once daily or twice daily (in two equal doses). The weighted average daily dose (i.e., the average dose taking into account duration of treatment at different doses) for the 36 patients with baseline body weight greater than 40 kg was 2.6 mg for males and 4.6 mg for females during the first year of treatment, and 3.2 mg for males and 6.3 mg for females over the entire study period. For the 12 patients with baseline body weight less than 40 kg, the weighted average daily dose was 0.06 to 0.11 mg/kg (0.8-4.3 mg) over the entire study period.
At baseline, 37 (77%) patients had HbA1c values of 7% or greater, 19 (40%) had HbA1c values of 9% or greater, 33 (69%) had fasting plasma glucose values of 126 mg/dL or greater, 17 (35%) had fasting triglyceride values of 500 mg/dL or greater, and 11 (23%) had fasting triglyceride values of 1000 mg/dL or greater.
Patients treated with MYALEPT had mean/median reductions in HbA1c, fasting glucose, and triglycerides at 1 year (Table 3). The changes in HbA1c, fasting glucose, and triglycerides observed at Month 4 were similar to those at 1 year. Concomitant antihyperglycemic and lipid-altering medication dosage regimens were not held constant during the study; for example, some patients treated with insulin had their dosage increased and others had large reductions or discontinuation of insulin.
Table 3: Results in an Open-Label, Single-Arm Study in
Patients with Generalized LipodystrophyTreated with MYALEPT (N=48)
|Parameter||n||Baseline Mean (SD)||Change from Baseline at Month 12 Mean (SD)|
|HbAlc (%)||35||8.5 (2)||-2 (1.5)|
|Fasting Glucose (mg/dL)||37||174 (85)||-49 (75)|
|Median (Q1, Q3)||Median Change (Q1, Q3)|
|Fasting Triglycerides (mg/dL)||36||348 (176, 769)||-184 (-643, -21)|
|Median Percent Change (Q1, Q3)|
|-55 (-77, -20)%|
|SD = standard deviation; Q = quartile|
Among 28 patients with generalized lipodystrophy who had a baseline HbA1c 7% or greater and data available at Month 12, the mean (SD) baseline HbA1c was 9.3 (1.5%) and the mean reduction in HbA1c at Month 12 was 2.4%.
Among 12 patients with generalized lipodystrophy who had a baseline triglyceride level 500 mg/dL or greater and data available at Month 12, the median baseline triglyceride level was 1527 mg/dL and the median reduction in triglycerides at Month 12 was 1117 mg/dL.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/15/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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