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While it can be part of a balanced and nutritious diet, grapefruit can have serious consequences when taken with certain medications. Cu"...
Isolated cases of serious hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid) reactions (including shock) have been reported in patients receiving Mycamine. If these reactions occur, Mycamine infusion should be discontinued and appropriate treatment administered.
Acute intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria was seen in a healthy volunteer during infusion of Mycamine (200 mg) and oral prednisolone (20 mg). This reaction was transient, and the subject did not develop significant anemia. Isolated cases of significant hemolysis and hemolytic anemia have also been reported in patients treated with Mycamine. Patients who develop clinical or laboratory evidence of hemolysis or hemolytic anemia during Mycamine therapy should be monitored closely for evidence of worsening of these conditions and evaluated for the risk/benefit of continuing Mycamine therapy.
Laboratory abnormalities in liver function tests have been seen in healthy volunteers and patients treated with Mycamine. In some patients with serious underlying conditions who were receiving Mycamine along with multiple concomitant medications, clinical hepatic abnormalities have occurred, and isolated cases of significant hepatic impairment, hepatitis, and hepatic failure have been reported. Patients who develop abnormal liver function tests during Mycamine therapy should be monitored for evidence of worsening hepatic function and evaluated for the risk/benefit of continuing Mycamine therapy.
Elevations in BUN and creatinine, and isolated cases of significant renal impairment or acute renal failure have been reported in patients who received Mycamine. In fluconazole-controlled trials, the incidence of drug-related renal adverse reactions was 0.4% for Mycamine treated patients and 0.5% for fluconazole treated patients. Patients who develop abnormal renal function tests during Mycamine therapy should be monitored for evidence of worsening renal function.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Hepatic carcinomas and adenomas were observed in a 6-month intravenous toxicology study with an 18-month recovery period of micafungin sodium in rats designed to assess the reversibility of hepatocellular lesions.
Rats administered micafungin sodium for 3 months at 32 mg/kg/day (corresponding to 8 times the highest recommended human dose [150 mg/day], based on AUC comparisons), exhibited colored patches/zones, multinucleated hepatocytes and altered hepatocellular foci after 1 or 3 month recovery periods, and adenomas were observed after a 21-month recovery period. Rats administered micafungin sodium at the same dose for 6 months exhibited adenomas after a 12-month recovery period; after an 18-month recovery period, an increased incidence of adenomas was observed, and additionally, carcinomas were detected. A lower dose of micafungin sodium (equivalent to 5 times the human AUC) in the 6-month rat study resulted in a lower incidence of adenomas and carcinomas following 18 months recovery. The duration of micafungin dosing in these rat studies (3 or 6 months) exceeds the usual duration of Mycamine dosing in patients, which is typically less than 1 month for treatment of esophageal candidiasis, but dosing may exceed 1 month for Candida prophylaxis.
Although the increase in carcinomas in the 6-month rat study did not reach statistical significance, the persistence of altered hepatocellular foci subsequent to Mycamine dosing, and the presence of adenomas and carcinomas in the recovery periods suggest a causal relationship between micafungin sodium, altered hepatocellular foci, and hepatic neoplasms. Whole-life carcinogenicity studies of Mycamine in animals have not been conducted, and it is not known whether the hepatic neoplasms observed in treated rats also occur in other species, or if there is a dose threshold for this effect.
Micafungin sodium was not mutagenic or clastogenic when evaluated in a standard battery of in vitro and in vivo tests (i.e., bacterial reversion -S. typhimurium, E. coli; chromosomal aberration; intravenous mouse micronucleus).
Male rats treated intravenously with micafungin sodium for 9 weeks showed vacuolation of the epididymal ductal epithelial cells at or above 10 mg/kg (about 0.6 times the recommended clinical dose for esophageal candidiasis, based on body surface area comparisons). Higher doses (about twice the recommended clinical dose, based on body surface area comparisons) resulted in higher epididymis weights and reduced numbers of sperm cells. In a 39-week intravenous study in dogs, seminiferous tubular atrophy and decreased sperm in the epididymis were observed at 10 and 32 mg/kg, doses equal to about 2 and 7 times the recommended clinical dose, based on body surface area comparisons. There was no impairment of fertility in animal studies with micafungin sodium.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Mycamine in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies in rabbits showed visceral abnormalities and increased abortion at 4 times the recommended human dose. However, animal studies are not always predictive of human response. Mycamine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
When pregnant rabbits were given 4 times the recommended human dose, there were increased abortion and visceral abnormalities including abnormal lobation of the lung, levocardia, retrocaval ureter, anomalous right subclavian artery, and dilatation of the ureter [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
It is not known whether micafungin is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Mycamine is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients younger than 4 months of age have not been established.
Safety and effectiveness of Mycamine in pediatric patients 4 months of age and older have been demonstrated based on the evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies in adult and pediatric patients and additional pediatric pharmacokinetic and safety data. Two randomized, double-blind, active control studies investigated the safety and efficacy of Mycamine in both adult and pediatric patients: one for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and candidemia and the other for prophylaxis of Candida infections in patients undergoing HSCT [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, ADVERSE REACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Clinical Studies].
A total of 418 subjects in clinical studies of Mycamine were 65 years of age and older, and 124 subjects were 75 years of age and older. No overall differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
The exposure and disposition of a 50 mg Mycamine dose administered as a single 1-hour infusion to 10 healthy subjects aged 66-78 years were not significantly different from those in 10 healthy subjects aged 20-24 years. No dose adjustment is necessary for the elderly.
Use in Patients with Renal Impairment
Use in Patients with Hepatic Impairment
Dose adjustment of Mycamine is not required in patients with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Race and Gender
No dose adjustment of Mycamine is required based on gender or race. After 14 daily doses of 150 mg to healthy subjects, micafungin AUC in women was greater by approximately 23% compared with men, due to smaller body weight. No notable differences among white, black, and Hispanic subjects were seen. The micafungin AUC was greater by 19% in Japanese subjects compared to blacks, due to smaller body weight.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/26/2013
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