John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Narcolepsy facts
- What is narcolepsy?
- How common is narcolepsy?
- What causes narcolepsy?
- What are the symptoms of narcolepsy?
- Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)
- Hypnagogic hallucinations
- Sleep paralysis
- Additional symptoms
- How is narcolepsy diagnosed?
- How is narcolepsy treated?
- Non-drug treatments
- What is the outcome (prognosis) for patients with narcolepsy?
- What's in the future for narcolepsy?
- For more information
- Find a local Sleep Specialist in your town
What's in the future for narcolepsy?
The discovery that a lack of hypocretins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be related to the cause of narcolepsy could lead to the development of tests to determine the level of hypocretins in the CSF. Such tests could help in the diagnosis of narcolepsy. The expectation is that these tests will be simple (drawing blood), and will reflect the level of hypocretins in the CSF. In addition, the discovery of the role of hypocretins in the development of narcolepsy may lead to the development of new drugs for the treatment of narcolepsy.
For more information
Narcolepsy Network, Inc.
79 Main Street
North Kingstown, RI 02852
Tel: 888-292-6522 401-667-2523
National Sleep Foundation
1522 K Street NW
Washington, DC 20005
Medically reviewed by Peter O’Connor, MD; American Board of Otolaryngology with subspecialty in Sleep Medicine
FDA.gov. Prescribing information for armodafinil.
FDA.gov. FDA Approves Xyrem for Cataplexy Attacks in Patients with Narcolepsy.
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. What are the Signs and Symptoms of Narcolepsy?
National Instutute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Facts About Narcolepsy.
Stanford School of Medicine. Narcolepsy Research - FAQs.
Previous contributing author and editor:
Medical Author: Roza Hayduk, MD
Medical Editor: Leslie J. Schoenfield, MD, PhD
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