"A deeper dive into data from the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes With Sitagliptin (TECOS) with the type 2 diabetes drug sitagliptin (Januvia, Merck), confirming that the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is not associated with any "...
Naropin (ropivacaine hcl) is indicated for the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and for acute pain management.
Surgical Anesthesia: epidural block for surgery including cesarean section; major nerve block; local infiltration
Acute Pain Management: epidural continuous infusion or intermittent bolus, eg, postoperative orlabor; local infiltration
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The rapid injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution should be avoided and fractional (incremental) doses should always be used. The smallest dose and concentration required to produce the desired result should be administered.
There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures. Naropin is not approved for this use (see WARNINGS).
The dose of any local anesthetic administered varies with the anesthetic procedure, the area to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the tissues, the number of neuronal segments to be blocked, the depth of anesthesia and degree of muscle relaxation required, the duration of anesthesia desired, individual tolerance, and the physical condition of the patient. Patients in poor general condition due to aging or other compromising factors such as partial or complete heart conduction block, advanced liver disease or severe renal dysfunction require special attention although regional anesthesia is frequently indicated in these patients. To reduce the risk of potentially serious adverse reactions, attempts should be made to optimize the patient's condition before major blocks are performed, and the dosage should be adjusted accordingly.
Use an adequate test dose (3 to 5 mL of a short acting local anesthetic solution containing epinephrine) prior to induction of complete block. This test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in such a fashion as to have displaced the epidural catheter. Allow adequate time for onset of anesthesia following administration of each test dose.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Solutions that are discolored or that contain particulate matter should not be administered.
Table 7: Dosage Recommendations
|Conc.||Volume mL||Dose mg||Onset min||Duration hours|
|Major Nerve Block†||5||(0.5%)||35-50||175-250||15-30||5-8|
|(eg, brachial plexus block)||7.5||(0.75%)||10-40||75-300||10-25||6-10|
|Field Block (eg, minor nerve blocks and infiltration)||5||(0.5%)||1-40||5-200||1-15||2-6|
|LABOR PAIN MANAGEMENT|
|Lumbar Epidural Administration|
|Continuous infusion‡||2||(0.2%)||6-14 mL/h||12-28 mL/h||n/a*||n/a*|
|Incremental injections (top-up)‡||2||(0.2%)||10-15 mL/h||20-30 mL/h||n/a*||n/a*|
|POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT|
|Lumbar Epidural Administration|
|Continuous infusion§||2||(0.2%)||6-14 mL/h||12-28 mg/h||n/a*||n/a*|
|Thoracic Epidural Administration Continuous infusion§||2||(0.2%)||6-14 mL/h||12-28 mL/h||n/a*||n/a*|
|(eg, minor nerve block)||5||(0.5%)||1-40||5-200||1-5||2-6|
|* = Not Applicable
† = The dose for a major nerve block must be adjusted according to site of administration and patient status. Supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks may be associated with a higher frequency of serious adverse reactions, regardless of the local anesthetic used (see PRECAUTIONS).
‡ = Median dose of 21 mg per hour was administered by continuous infusion or by incremental injections (top-ups) over a median delivery time of 5.5 hours.
§ = Cumulative doses up to 770 mg of Naropin (ropivacaine hcl) over 24 hours (intraoperative block plus postoperative infusion); Continuous epidural infusion at rates up to 28 mg per hour for 72 hours have been well tolerated in adults, ie, 2016 mg plus surgical dose of approximately 100 to 150 mg as top-up.
The doses in the table are those considered to be necessary to produce a successful block and should be regarded as guidelines for use in adults. Individual variations in onset and duration occur. The figures reflect the expected average dose range needed. For other local anesthetic techniques standard current textbooks should be consulted.
When prolonged blocks are used, either through continuous infusion or through repeated bolus administration, the risks of reaching a toxic plasma concentration or inducing local neural injury must be considered. Experience to date indicates that a cumulative dose of up to 770 mg Naropin (ropivacaine hcl) administered over 24 hours is well tolerated in adults when used for postoperative pain management: ie, 2016 mg. Caution should be exercised when administering Naropin (ropivacaine hcl) for prolonged periods of time, eg, > 70 hours in debilitated patients.
For treatment of postoperative pain, the following technique can be recommended: If regional anesthesia was not used intraoperatively, then an initial epidural block with 5 to 7 mL Naropin (ropivacaine hcl) is induced via an epidural catheter. Analgesia is maintained with an infusion of Naropin (ropivacaine hcl) , 2 mg/mL (0.2%). Clinical studies have demonstrated that infusion rates of 6 to 14 mL (12 to 28 mg) per hour provide adequate analgesia with nonprogressive motor block. With this technique a significant reduction in the need for opioids was demonstrated. Clinical experience supports the use of Naropin (ropivacaine hcl) epidural infusions for up to 72 hours.
Naropin® (ropivacaine hcl) Polyamp DuoFit™ Sterile-Pak: Boxes of 5
polypropylene ampules fitting both Luer-lock and Luer-slip (tapered syringes)
|Product No.||NDC No.||Strength||Ampule Size|
|278510||63323-285-10||2 mg/mL (0.2%)||10 mL|
|278520||63323-285-20||2 mg/mL (0.2%)||20 mL|
|278620||63323-286-20||5 mg/mL (0.5%)||20 mL|
|278720||63323-287-20||7.5 mg/mL (0.75%)||20 mL|
|278810||63323-288-10||10 mg/mL (1%)||10 mL|
|278820||63323-288-20||10 mg/mL (1%)||20 mL|
Naropin® (ropivacaine hcl) Single Dose Vials
|Product No.||NDC No.||Strength||Size|
|278630||63323-286-30||5 mg/mL (0.5%)||30 mL single dose vial packaged individually.|
|278631||63323-286-31||5 mg/mL (0.5%)||30 mL single dose vials Sterile-Pak in boxes of 5|
Naropin® (ropivacaine hcl) Single Dose Infusion Bottles
|Product No.||NDC No.||Strength||Size|
|278565||63323-285-65||2 mg/mL (0.2%)||100 mL Infusion Bottle|
|278564||63323-285-64||2 mg/mL (0.2%)||200 mL Infusion Bottle|
The solubility of ropivacaine is limited at pH above 6. Thus, care must be taken as precipitation may occur if Naropin (ropivacaine hcl) is mixed with alkaline solutions.
Disinfecting agents containing heavy metals, which cause release of respective ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc.) should not be used for skin or mucous membrane disinfection since they have been related to incidents of swelling and edema.
When chemical disinfection of the container surface is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or ethyl alcohol (70%) is recommended. It is recommended that chemical disinfection be accomplished by wiping the ampule or vial stopper thoroughly with cotton or gauze that has been moistened with the recommended alcohol just prior to use. When a container is required to have a sterile outside, a Sterile-Pak should be chosen. Glass containers may, as an alternative, be autoclaved once. Stability has been demonstrated using a targeted F0 of 7 minutes at 121°C.
Solutions should be stored at 20º to 25°C (68º to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
These products are intended for single use and are free from preservatives. Any solution remaining from an opened container should be discarded promptly. In addition, continuous infusion bottles should not be left in place for more than 24 hours.
Manufactured for: APP Pharmaceuticals. LLC, Schaumburg, IL 60173. Issued: February 2010This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/8/2010
Additional Naropin Information
Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
Find out what women really need.