Nasal Adverse Reactions And Limited Long-Term Information On Nasal Safety
Nasal adverse reactions, including nasopharyngitis, rhinorrhea, epistaxis, nasal discomfort and nasal scabbing, were reported in the clinical trial experience with Natesto. All nasal adverse reactions except one (a single case of upper respiratory infection) were reported as mild or moderate in severity; however, long-term clinical trial data on nasal safety is available in a limited number of subjects [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Patients should be instructed to report any nasal symptoms or signs to their health care professional. In that circumstance, health care professionals should determine whether further evaluation (e.g., otorhinolaryngology consultation) or discontinuation of Natesto is appropriate.
Use In Patients With Chronic Nasal Conditions And Alterations In Nasal Anatomy
Due to lack of clinical data on the safety or efficacy, Natesto is not recommended for use in the following patients:
- History of nasal disorders;
- History of nasal or sinus surgery;
- History of nasal fracture within the previous 6 months or nasal fracture that caused a deviated anterior nasal septum;
- Mucosal inflammatory disorders (e.g, Sjogren's syndrome); and
- Sinus disease.
Worsening Of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia And Potential Risk Of Prostate Cancer
- Patients with BPH treated with androgens are at an increased risk for worsening of signs and symptoms of BPH. Monitor patients with BPH for worsening signs and symptoms.
- Patients treated with androgens may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. Evaluate patients for prostate cancer prior to initiating treatment. It would be appropriate to re-evaluate patients 3 to 6 months after initiation of treatment and then in accordance with prostate cancer screening practices [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
Increases in hematocrit, reflective of increases in red blood cell mass, may require discontinuation of Natesto . Check hematocrit prior to initiating testosterone treatment. It would be appropriate to re-evaluate the hematocrit 3 to 6 months after starting testosterone treatment, and then annually. If hematocrit becomes elevated, stop therapy until hematocrit decreases to an acceptable level. An increase in red blood cell mass may increase the risk of thromboembolic events.
There have been postmarketing reports of venous thromboembolic events , including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), in patients using testosterone products such as Natesto. Evaluate patients who report symptoms of pain, edema, warmth and erythema in the lower extremity for (DVT) and those who present with acute shortness of breath for PE. If a venous thromboembolic event is suspected, discontinue treatment with Natesto and initiate appropriate workup and management [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Long term clinical safety trials have not been conducted to assess the cardiovascular outcomes of testosterone replacement therapy in men. To date, epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled trials have been inconclusive for determining the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), such as non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular death, with the use of testosterone compared to non-use. Some studies, but not all, have reported an increased risk of MACE in association with use of testosterone replacement therapy in men. Patients should be informed of this possible risk when deciding whether to use or to continue to use Natesto.
Use In Women
Due to lack of controlled studies in women and potential virilizing effects, Natesto is not indicated for use in women.
Potential For Adverse Effects On Spermatogenesis
With large doses of exogenous androgens, including Natesto, spermatogenesis may be suppressed through feedback inhibition of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which could possibly lead to adverse effects on semen parameters, including sperm count.
Hepatic Adverse Effects
Prolonged use of high doses of orally active 17-alpha-alkyl androgens (methyltestosterone) has been associated with serious hepatic adverse effects (peliosis hepatitis, hepatic neoplasms, cholestatic hepatitis, and jaundice). Peliosis hepatitis can be a life-threatening or fatal complication. Long-term therapy with intramuscular testosterone enanthate has produced multiple hepatic adenomas. Natesto is not known to cause these adverse effects. Nonetheless, patients should be instructed to report any signs or symptoms of hepatic dysfunction (e.g., jaundice). If these occur, promptly discontinue Natesto while the cause is evaluated.
Androgens, including Natesto, may promote retention of sodium and water. Edema, with or without congestive heart failure, may be a serious complication in patients with pre-existing cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease. In addition to discontinuation of the drug, diuretic therapy may be required.
Changes in the serum lipid profile may occur. Monitor the lipid profile periodically, particularly after starting testosterone therapy. Changes in serum lipid profile may require discontinuation of testosterone therapy.
Androgens, including Natesto, should be used with caution in cancer patients at risk of hypercalcemia (and associated hypercalciuria). Regular monitoring of serum calcium concentrations is recommended in these patients.
Decreased Thyroxine-binding Globulin
Androgens, including Natesto, may decrease concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulins, resulting in decreased total T4 serum concentrations and increased resin uptake of T3 and T4. Free thyroid hormone concentrations remain unchanged; however, and there is no clinical evidence of thyroid dysfunction.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION).
Use in Men With Known or Suspected Prostate or Breast Cancer
Nasal Adverse Reactions
Nasal adverse reactions, including nasopharyngitis, rhinorrhea, epistaxis, nasal discomfort and nasal scabbing, were reported in clinical trials of Natesto. Advise patients to report any nasal symptoms or signs to their health care professional.
Potential Adverse Reactions With Androgens
Patients should be informed that treatment with androgens may lead to adverse reactions which include:
- Changes in urinary habits such as increased urination at night, trouble starting your urine stream, passing urine many times during the day, having an urge that you have to go to the bathroom right away, having urine accident, being unable to pass urine, and having a weak urine flow.
- Breathing disturbances, including those associated with sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness.
- Too frequent or persistent erections of the penis.
- Nausea, vomiting, changes in skin color, or ankle swelling.
Patients Should be Advised of the Following Instructions For Use
- Read the Patient Information accompanying each Natesto metered dose pump.
- Prime the pump by depressing it 10 times prior to its first use. No priming is needed with subsequent uses of that pump.
- Administer Natesto intranasally and NOT to other parts of the body. Administer Natesto intranasally three times daily, once in the morning, once in the afternoon and once in the evening (6 to 8 hours apart), preferably at the same time each day.
- Keep Natesto out of the reach of children.
- Report any changes in their state of health, such as changes in urinary habits, breathing, sleep, mood, nasal irritation or rhinitis.
- Never share Natesto with anyone.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, And Impairment Of Fertility
Testosterone has been tested by subcutaneous injection and implantation in mice and rats. In mice, the implant induced cervical-uterine tumors, which metastasized in some cases. There is suggestive evidence that injection of testosterone into some strains of female mice increases their susceptibility to hepatoma. Testosterone is also known to increase the number of tumors and decrease the degree of differentiation of chemically induced carcinomas of the liver in rats. .
Testosterone was negative in the in vitro Ames and in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assays.
Impairment of Fertility
The administration of exogenous testosterone has been reported to suppress spermatogenesis in the rat, dog and non-human primates, which was reversible on cessation of the treatment.
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category X
Natesto is contraindicated during pregnancy or in women who may become pregnant. Testosterone is teratogenic and may cause fetal harm. Exposure of a fetus to androgens may result in varying degrees of virilization. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.
Although it is not known how much testosterone transfers into human milk, Natesto is contraindicated in nursing women because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants.
Safety and efficacy of Natesto has not been established in pediatric patients less than 18 years of age. Improper use may result in acceleration of bone age and premature closure of epiphyses.
There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric patients involved in controlled clinical studies utilizing Natesto to determine whether efficacy in those over 65 years of age differs from younger subjects.
Of the 306 patients enrolled in the Phase 3 clinical trial utilizing Natesto, 60 were 65 years of age or older, and 9 were 75 years of age or older. There are insufficient long-term safety data in geriatric patients to assess the potential for increased risks of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer.
Geriatric patients treated with androgens may also be at risk for worsening of signs and symptoms of BPH [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTION].
No studies were conducted in patients with renal impairment.
No studies were conducted in patients with hepatic impairment.
Use In Men With Body Mass Index Greater Than 35 kg/m2
Safety and efficacy of Natesto in males with body mass index greater than 35 kg/m2 has not been established.
Serum total testosterone concentrations were decreased by 21 to 24% in males with symptomatic allergic rhinitis, whether treated with nasal decongestants such as oxymetazoline, or left untreated [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 9/8/2015
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