Nausea and Vomiting (cont.)
Benjamin Wedro, MD, FACEP, FAAEM
Dr. Ben Wedro practices emergency medicine at Gundersen Clinic, a regional trauma center in La Crosse, Wisconsin. His background includes undergraduate and medical studies at the University of Alberta, a Family Practice internship at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario and residency training in Emergency Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Nausea and vomiting facts
- Introduction to nausea and vomiting
- What causes nausea or vomiting?
- Acute gastritis and nausea and vomiting
- Central causes of nausea and vomiting
- Nausea and vomiting associated with illness
- Nausea and vomiting from medications and medical treatments
- Nausea and vomiting and bowel obstruction
- Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (morning sickness)
- Vomiting in infants
- What are home remedies for nausea or vomiting?
- When should I call the doctor regarding nausea and vomiting?
- How is the source of nausea or vomiting diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for nausea or vomiting?
Central causes of nausea and vomiting
- Headache: especially migraine, is commonly associated with nausea and vomiting.
- Inner ear: Motion sickness, labyrinthitis, benign positional vertigo, or Meniere's disease
- Increased intracranial pressure: Any illness or injury that increases the pressure within the skull can cause vomiting.
- Brain swelling due to trauma (includes bleeding within the brain)
- Infection (meningitis or encephalitis)
- Tumors (benign or malignant)
- Abnormal electrolyte concentrations in the bloodstream and associated water imbalance
- Concussion, patients with head injuries do not have to have detectable bleeding in the brain or brain swelling to have symptoms of brain irritation, which can include headache, nausea, vomiting, changes in vision, confusion, difficulty concentrating, difficulty sleeping, among other symptoms.
- Noxious stimulus: Certain smells or sounds can cause centrally mediated nausea and vomiting that originates in the brain. Whether it is the pain of a broken bone or the emotional shock of observing an event, vasovagal events can cause significant symptoms. In a vasovagal episode, the vagus nerve (one of the nerves that helps control basic body functions like heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure) is overly stimulated can cause the heart rate to slow and blood vessels to dilate. This decreases the blood flow to the brain and can cause fainting, known as a syncopal episode.
- Heat related illness: For example heat exhaustion, extreme sunburn, or dehydration
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