"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vimizim (elosulfase alfa), the first FDA-approved treatment for Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA (Morquio A syndrome). Morquio A syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease "...
Single intravenous doses of 1 to 2 mg zinc/kg body weight have been given to adult leukemic patients without toxic manifestations. However, acute toxicity was reported in an adult when 10 mg zinc was infused over a period of one hour on each of four consecutive days. Profuse sweating, decreased level of consciousness, blurred vision, tachycardia (140/min.) and marked hypothermia (94.2° F) on the fourth day were accompanied by a serum zinc concentration of 207 mcg/mL. Symptoms abated within three hours. Hyperamylasemia may be a sign of impending zinc overdosage; patients receiving an inadvertent overdose (25 mg zinc/liter of TPN solution, equivalent to 50 to 70 mg zinc/day) developed hyperamylasemia (557 to 1850 Klein units; normal: 130 to 310).
Death resulted from an overdose in which 1683 mg zinc was delivered intravenously over the course of 60 hours to a 72-year-old patient. Symptoms of zinc toxicity included hypotension (80/40mm Hg), pulmonary edema, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice and oliguria, with a serum zinc level of 4184 mcg/100 mL. Calcium supplements may confer a protective effect against zinc toxicity.
Copper toxicity can produce prostration, behavior change, diarrhea, progressive marasmus, hypotonia, photophobia and peripheral edema. Such symptoms have been reported with a serum copper level of 286 mcg/100 mL. D-penicillamine has been reported effective as an antidote.
Manganese toxicity in TPN patients has not been reported within the prescribed dosage.
Trivalent chromium administered intravenously to TPN patients has been shown to be nontoxic when given at dosage levels of up to 250 mcg/day for two consecutive weeks.
Reported toxic reactions to chromium include nausea, vomiting, ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract, renal and hepatic damage, convulsions and coma. The acute LD50 for intravenous trivalent chromium in rats was reported as 10 to 18 mg/kg.
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