"Nov. 27, 2012 -- Countries that mix high-fructose corn syrup into processed foods and soft drinks have higher rates of diabetes than countries that don't use the sweetener, a new study shows.
In a study published in the journal Glo"...
Acute pancreatitis has been reported in the postmarketing setting and in randomized clinical trials. In glycemic control trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, acute pancreatitis was reported in 6 (0.2%) patients treated with NESINA 25 mg and 2 ( < 0.1%) patients treated with active comparators or placebo. In the EXAMINE trial (a cardiovascular outcomes trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular (CV) risk), acute pancreatitis was reported in 10 (0.4%) of patients treated with NESINA and in 7 (0.3%) of patients treated with placebo.
It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for pancreatitis while using NESINA.
After initiation of NESINA, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, NESINA should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated.
In the EXAMINE trial which enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome, 106 (3.9%) of patients treated with NESINA and 89 (3.3%) of patients treated with placebo were hospitalized for congestive heart failure.
Consider the risks and benefits of NESINA prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Patients should be advised of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and should be instructed to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of NESINA.
There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with NESINA. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema and severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue NESINA, assess for other potential causes for the event and institute alternative treatment for diabetes [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Use caution in patients with a history of angioedema with another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with NESINA.
There have been postmarketing reports of fatal and nonfatal hepatic failure in patients taking NESINA, although some of the reports contain insufficient information necessary to establish the probable cause [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In glycemic control trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) were reported in 1.3% of patients treated with NESINA 25 mg and 1.7% of patients treated with active comparators or placebo. In the EXAMINE trial (a cardiovascular outcomes trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular (CV) risk), increases in serum alanine aminotransferase three times the upper limit of the reference range occurred in 2.4% of patients treated with NESINA and in 1.8% of patients treated with placebo.
Measure liver tests promptly in patients who report symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice. In this clinical context, if the patient is found to have clinically significant liver enzyme elevations and if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, NESINA should be interrupted and investigation done to establish the probable cause. NESINA should not be restarted in these patients without another explanation for the liver test abnormalities.
Use With Medications Known To Cause Hypoglycemia
Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulfonylureas, are known to cause hypoglycemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with NESINA.
Severe And Disabling Arthralgia
There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with NESINA or any other antidiabetic drug.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide). Inform patients of the potential risks and benefits of NESINA.
Patients should be informed that acute pancreatitis has been reported during use of NESINA. Patients should be informed that persistent, severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be instructed to promptly discontinue NESINA and contact their physician if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs.
Patients should be informed of the signs and symptoms of heart failure. Before initiating NESINA, patients should be asked about a history of heart failure or other risk factors for heart failure including moderate to severe renal impairment. Patients should be instructed to contact their healthcare providers as soon as possible if they experience symptoms of heart failure, including increasing shortness of breath, rapid increase in weight, or swelling of the feet.
Patients should be informed that allergic reactions have been reported during use of NESINA. If symptoms of allergic reactions (including skin rash, hives and swelling of the face, lips, tongue and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing) occur, patients should be instructed to discontinue NESINA and seek medical advice promptly.
Patients should be informed that postmarketing reports of liver injury, sometimes fatal, have been reported during use of NESINA. If signs or symptoms of liver injury occur, patients should be instructed to discontinue NESINA and seek medical advice promptly.
Inform patients that hypoglycemia can occur, particularly when an insulin secretagogue or insulin is used in combination with NESINA. Explain the risks, symptoms and appropriate management of hypoglycemia.
Inform patients that severe and disabling joint pain may occur with this class of drugs. The time to onset of symptoms can range from one day to years. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if severe joint pain occurs.
Instruct patients to take NESINA only as prescribed. If a dose is missed, advise patients not to double their next dose.
Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting NESINA therapy and to reread each time the prescription is refilled. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare provider if an unusual symptom develops or if a symptom persists or worsens.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Rats were administered oral doses of 75, 400 and 800 mg/kg alogliptin for two years. No drug-related tumors were observed up to 75 mg/kg or approximately 32 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) exposure. At higher doses (approximately 308 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg), a combination of thyroid C-cell adenomas and carcinomas increased in male but not female rats. No drug-related tumors were observed in mice after administration of 50, 150 or 300 mg/kg alogliptin for two years, or up to approximately 51 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on AUC exposure.
Alogliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic, with and without metabolic activation, in the Ames test with S. typhimurium and E. coli or the cytogenetic assay in mouse lymphoma cells. Alogliptin was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus study.
In a fertility study in rats, alogliptin had no adverse effects on early embryonic development, mating or fertility at doses up to 500 mg/kg, or approximately 172 times the clinical dose based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).
Use In Specific Populations
Limited data with NESINA in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations].
No adverse developmental effects were observed when alogliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at exposures 180-and 149-times the 25 mg clinical dose, respectively, based on plasma drug exposure (AUC) [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1c > 7 and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with HbA1c > 10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Disease-associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, still birth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity.
Alogliptin administered to pregnant rabbits and rats during the period of organogenesis did not cause adverse developmental effects at doses of up to 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, or 149 times and 180 times, the 25 mg clinical dose, respectively, based on plasma drug exposure (AUC). Placental transfer of alogliptin into the fetus was observed following oral dosing to pregnant rats.
No adverse developmental outcomes were observed in offspring when alogliptin was administered to pregnant rats during gestation and lactation at doses up to 250 mg/kg (~ 95 times the 25 mg clinical dose, based on AUC).
There is no information regarding the presence of alogliptin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Alogliptin is present in rat milk: however, due to species specific differences in lactation physiology, animal lactation data may not reliably predict levels in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the motherâ€™s clinical need for NESINA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from NESINA or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness of NESINA in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the total number of patients (N=9052) in clinical safety and efficacy studies treated with NESINA, 2257 (24.9%) patients were 65 years and older and 386 (4.3%) patients were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients 65 years and over and younger patients. While this clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
A total of 602 patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR ≥ 30 and < 60 mL/min/1.73 m² ) and 4 patients with severe renal impairment/end-stage renal disease (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m² or < 15 mL/min/1.73 m² , respectively) at baseline were treated with NESINA in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reductions in HbA1c were generally similar in this subgroup of patients. The overall incidence of adverse reactions was generally balanced between NESINA and placebo treatments in this subgroup of patients.
In the EXAMINE trial of high CV risk type 2 diabetes patients, 694 patients had moderate renal impairment and 78 patients had severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease at baseline. The overall incidences of adverse reactions, serious adverse reactions and adverse reactions leading to study drug discontinuation were generally similar between the treatment groups.
No dose adjustments are required in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade A and B) based on insignificant change in systemic exposures (e.g., AUC) compared to subjects with normal hepatic function in a pharmacokinetic study. NESINA has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade C). Use caution when administering NESINA to patients with liver disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/28/2016
Additional Nesina Information
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