"Nov. 29, 2012 (Chicago) -- For cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who have found their complaints of general mental fogginess and haziness dismissed by their doctors as not being a real medical condition, vindication has arrived.
Mechanism Of Action
Pegfilgrastim is a colony-stimulating factor that acts on hematopoietic cells by binding to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating proliferation, differentiation, commitment, and end cell functional activation.
Animal data and clinical data in humans suggest a correlation between pegfilgrastim exposure and the duration of severe neutropenia as a predictor of efficacy. Selection of the dosing regimen of Neulasta is based on reducing the duration of severe neutropenia.
The pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim was studied in 379 patients with cancer. The pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim was nonlinear and clearance decreased with increases in dose. Neutrophil receptor binding is an important component of the clearance of pegfilgrastim, and serum clearance is directly related to the number of neutrophils. In addition to numbers of neutrophils, body weight appeared to be a factor. Patients with higher body weights experienced higher systemic exposure to pegfilgrastim after receiving a dose normalized for body weight. A large variability in the pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim was observed. The half-life of Neulasta ranged from 15 to 80 hours after subcutaneous injection. In healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim were comparable when delivered subcutaneously via a manual prefilled syringe versus via the On-body Injector for Neulasta.
No gender-related differences were observed in the pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim, and no differences were observed in the pharmacokinetics of geriatric patients ( ≥ 65 years of age) compared with younger patients ( < 65 years of age) [see Use in Specific Populations].
In a study of 30 subjects with varying degrees of renal dysfunction, including end stage renal disease, renal dysfunction had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim [see Use In Specific Populations].
Pediatric Patients with Cancer Receiving Myelosuppressive Chemotherapy
The pharmacokinetics and safety of pegfilgrastim were studied in 37 pediatric patients with sarcoma in Study 4 [see Clinical Studies]. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) systemic exposure (AUC0-inf) of Neulasta after subcutaneous administration at 100 mcg/kg was 47.9 (± 22.5) mcg·hr/mL in the youngest age group (0 to 5 years, n = 11), 22.0 (± 13.1) mcg·hr/mL in the (6 to 11 years age group (n = 10), and 29.3 (± 23.2) mcg·hr/mL in the 12 to 21 years age group (n = 13). The terminal elimination half-lives of the corresponding age groups were 30.1 (± 38.2) hours, 20.2 (± 11.3) hours, and 21.2 (± 16.0) hours, respectively.
Patients Acutely Exposed to Myelosuppressive Doses of Radiation The pharmacokinetics of pegfilgrastim is not available in patients acutely exposed to myelosuppressive doses of radiation. Based on limited pharmacokinetic data in irradiated non-human primates, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), reflecting the exposure to pegfilgrastim in non-human primates following a 300 mcg/kg dose of Neulasta, appears to be greater than in humans receiving a 6 mg dose. Results from population modeling and simulation indicate that two 6 mg doses of Neulasta administered one week apart in adults result in clinically relevant effects on duration of grade 3 and 4 neutropenia. In addition, weight based dosing in pediatric patients weighing less than 45 kg [see DOSING AND ADMINISTRATION, Table 1] provides exposures comparable to those in adults receiving two 6 mg doses one week apart.
Reproductive And Developmental Toxicology
Pregnant rabbits were dosed with pegfilgrastim subcutaneously every other day during the period of organogenesis. At cumulative doses ranging from the approximate human dose to approximately 4 times the recommended human dose (based on body surface area), treated rabbits exhibited decreased maternal food consumption, maternal weight loss, as well as reduced fetal body weights and delayed ossification of the fetal skull; however, no structural anomalies were observed in the offspring from either study. Increased incidences of post-implantation losses and spontaneous abortions (more than half the pregnancies) were observed at cumulative doses approximately 4 times the recommended human dose, which were not seen when pregnant rabbits were exposed to the recommended human dose.
Three studies were conducted in pregnant rats dosed with pegfilgrastim at cumulative doses up to approximately 10 times the recommended human dose at the following stages of gestation: during the period of organogenesis, from mating through the first half of pregnancy, and from the first trimester through delivery and lactation. No evidence of fetal loss or structural malformations was observed in any study. Cumulative doses equivalent to approximately 3 and 10 times the recommended human dose resulted in transient evidence of wavy ribs in fetuses of treated mothers (detected at the end of gestation but no longer present in pups evaluated at the end of lactation).
Patients With Cancer Receiving Myelosuppressive Chemotherapy
Neulasta was evaluated in three randomized, double-blind, controlled studies. Studies 1 and 2 were active-controlled studies that employed doxorubicin 60 mg/m² and docetaxel 75 mg/m² administered every 21 days for up to 4 cycles for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Study 1 investigated the utility of a fixed dose of Neulasta. Study 2 employed a weight-adjusted dose. In the absence of growth factor support, similar chemotherapy regimens have been reported to result in a 100% incidence of severe neutropenia (ANC < 0.5 x 109/L) with a mean duration of 5 to 7 days and a 30% to 40% incidence of febrile neutropenia. Based on the correlation between the duration of severe neutropenia and the incidence of febrile neutropenia found in studies with filgrastim, duration of severe neutropenia was chosen as the primary endpoint in both studies, and the efficacy of Neulasta was demonstrated by establishing comparability to filgrastim-treated patients in the mean days of severe neutropenia.
In Study 1, 157 patients were randomized to receive a single subcutaneous injection of Neulasta (6 mg) on day 2 of each chemotherapy cycle or daily subcutaneous filgrastim (5 mcg/kg/day) beginning on day 2 of each chemotherapy cycle. In Study 2, 310 patients were randomized to receive a single subcutaneous injection of Neulasta (100 mcg/kg) on day 2 or daily subcutaneous filgrastim (5 mcg/kg/day) beginning on day 2 of each chemotherapy cycle.
Both studies met the major efficacy outcome measure of demonstrating that the mean days of severe neutropenia of Neulasta-treated patients did not exceed that of filgrastim-treated patients by more than 1 day in cycle 1 of chemotherapy. The mean days of cycle 1 severe neutropenia in Study 1 were 1.8 days in the Neulasta arm compared to 1.6 days in the filgrastim arm [difference in means 0.2 (95% CI -0.2, 0.6)] and in Study 2 were 1.7 days in the Neulasta arm compared to 1.6 days in the Filgrastim arm [difference in means 0.1 (95% CI -0.2, 0.4)].
A secondary endpoint in both studies was days of severe neutropenia in cycles 2 through 4 with results similar to those for cycle 1.
Study 3 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that employed docetaxel 100 mg/m² administered every 21 days for up to 4 cycles for the treatment of metastatic or non-metastatic breast cancer. In this study, 928 patients were randomized to receive a single subcutaneous injection of Neulasta (6 mg) or placebo on day 2 of each chemotherapy cycle. Study 3 met the major trial outcome measure of demonstrating that the incidence of febrile neutropenia (defined as temperature ≥ 38.2°C and ANC ≤ 0.5 x109/L) was lower for Neulasta-treated patients as compared to placebo-treated patients (1% versus 17%, respectively, p < 0.001). The incidence of hospitalizations (1% versus 14%) and IV anti-infective use (2% versus 10%) for the treatment of febrile neutropenia was also lower in the Neulasta-treated patients compared to the placebo-treated patients.
Study 4 was a multicenter, randomized, open-label study to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] of Neulasta in pediatric and young adult patients with sarcoma. Patients with sarcoma receiving chemotherapy age 0 to 21 years were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous Neulasta as a single dose of 100 mcg/kg (n= 37) or subcutaneous filgrastim at a dose 5 mcg/kg/day (n=6) following myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Recovery of neutrophil counts was similar in the Neulasta and filgrastim groups. The most common adverse reaction reported was bone pain.
Patients With Hematopoietic Subsyndrome Of Acute Radiation Syndrome
Efficacy studies of Neulasta could not be conducted in humans with acute radiation syndrome for ethical and feasibility reasons. Approval of this indication was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals and data supporting Neulasta's effect on severe neutropenia in patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
The recommended dose of Neulasta is two doses, 6 mg each, administered one week apart for humans exposed to myelosuppressive doses of radiation. For pediatric patients those weighing less than 45 kg, dosing of Neulasta is weight based and is provided in Table 1 [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. This dosing regimen is based on population modeling and simulation analyses. The exposure associated with this dosing regimen is expected to provide sufficient pharmacodynamic activity to treat humans exposed to myelosuppressive doses of radiation [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. The safety of Neulasta at a dose of 6 mg has been assessed on the basis of clinical experience in patients with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy.
The efficacy of Neulasta for the acute radiation syndrome setting was studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled non-human primate model of radiation injury. Rhesus macaques were randomized to either a control (n=23) or treated (n=23) cohort. On study day 0, animals (n = 6 to 8 per irradiation day) were exposed to total body irradiation (TBI) of 7.50 ± 0.15 Gy delivered at 0.8 ± 0.03 Gy/min, representing a dose that would be lethal in 50% of animals by 60 days of follow-up (LD50/60). Animals were administered subcutaneous injections of a blinded treatment (control article [5% dextrose in water] or pegfilgrastim [300-319 mcg/kg/day]) on study day 1 and on study day 8. The primary endpoint was survival. Animals received medical management consisting of intravenous fluids, antibiotics, blood transfusions, and other support as required.
Pegfilgrastim significantly (at 0.0014 level of significance) increased 60-day survival in irradiated non-human primates: 91% survival (21/23) in the pegfilgrastim group compared to 48% survival (11/23) in the control group.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/7/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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