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Nexavar

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Nexavar

Side Effects
Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The data described in sections 6.1 and 6.2 reflect exposure to NEXAVAR in 748 patients who participated in placebo controlled studies in hepatocellular carcinoma (N=297) or advanced renal cell carcinoma (N=451).

The most common adverse reactions ( ≥ 20%), which were considered to be related to NEXAVAR, in patients with HCC or RCC are fatigue, weight loss, rash/desquamation, hand-foot skin reaction, alopecia, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea and abdominal pain.

Adverse Reactions in HCC Study

Table 2 shows the percentage of patients with HCC experiencing adverse reactions that were reported in at least 10% of patients and at a higher rate in the NEXAVAR arm than the placebo arm. CTCAE Grade 3 adverse reactions were reported in 39% of patients receiving NEXAVAR compared to 24% of patients receiving placebo. CTCAE Grade 4 adverse reactions were reported in 6% of patients receiving NEXAVAR compared to 8% of patients receiving placebo.

Table 2: Adverse Reactions Reported in at Least 10% of Patients and at a Higher Rate in NEXAVAR Arm than the Placebo Arm – HCC Study

Adverse Reaction NCI- CTCAE v3 Category/Term NEXAVAR N=297 Placebo N=302
All Grades % Grade 3 % Grade 4 % All Grades % Grade 3 % Grade 4 %
Any Adverse Reaction 98 39 6 96 24 8
Constitutional symptoms
Fatigue 46 9 1 45 12 2
Weight loss 30 2 0 10 1 0
Dermatology/skin
Rash/desquamation 19 1 0 14 0 0
Pruritus 14 < 1 0 11 < 1 0
Hand-foot skin reaction 21 8 0 3 < 1 0
Dry skin 10 0 0 6 0 0
Alopecia 14 0 0 2 0 0
Gastrointestinal
Diarrhea 55 10 < 1 25 2 0
Anorexia 29 3 0 18 3 < 1
Nausea 24 1 0 20 3 0
Vomiting 15 2 0 11 2 0
Constipation 14 0 0 10 0 0
Hepatobiliary/pancreas
Liver dysfunction 11 2 1 8 2 1
Pain
Pain, abdomen 31 9 0 26 5 1

Hypertension was reported in 9% of patients treated with NEXAVAR and 4% of those treated with placebo. CTCAE Grade 3 hypertension was reported in 4% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 1% of placebo-treated patients. No patients were reported with CTCAE Grade 4 reactions in either treatment group.

Hemorrhage/bleeding was reported in 18% of those receiving NEXAVAR and 20% of placebo-treated patients. The rates of CTCAE Grade 3 and 4 bleeding were also higher in the placebo-treated group (CTCAE Grade 3 – 3% NEXAVAR and 5% placebo and CTCAE Grade 4 – 2% NEXAVAR and 4% placebo). Bleeding from esophageal varices was reported in 2.4% in NEXAVAR-treated patients and 4% of placebo-treated patients.

Renal failure was reported in < 1% of patients treated with NEXAVAR and 3% of placebo-treated patients.

The rate of adverse reactions (including those associated with progressive disease) resulting in permanent discontinuation was similar in both the NEXAVAR and placebo-treated groups (32% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 35% of placebo-treated patients).

Laboratory Abnormalities

The following laboratory abnormalities were observed in patients with HCC:

Hypophosphatemia was a common laboratory finding, observed in 35% of NEXAVAR-treated patients compared to 11% of placebo-treated patients; CTCAE Grade 3 hypophosphatemia (1–2 mg/dL) occurred in 11% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 2% of patients in the placebo-treated group; there was 1 case of CTCAE Grade 4 hypophosphatemia ( < 1 mg/dL) reported in the placebo-treated group. The etiology of hypophosphatemia associated with NEXAVAR is not known.

Elevated lipase was observed in 40% of patients treated with NEXAVAR compared to 37% of patients in the placebo-treated group. CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 lipase elevations occurred in 9% of patients in each group. Elevated amylase was observed in 34% of patients treated with NEXAVAR compared to 29% of patients in the placebo-treated group. CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 amylase elevations were reported in 2% of patients in each group. Many of the lipase and amylase elevations were transient, and in the majority of cases NEXAVAR treatment was not interrupted. Clinical pancreatitis was reported in 1 of 297 NEXAVAR-treated patients (CTCAE Grade 2).

Elevations in liver function tests were comparable between the 2 arms of the study. Hypoalbuminemia was observed in 59% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 47% of placebo-treated patients; no CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 hypoalbuminemia was observed in either group.

INR elevations were observed in 42% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 34% of placebo-treated patients; CTCAE Grade 3 INR elevations were reported in 4% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 2% of placebo-treated patients; there was no CTCAE Grade 4 INR elevation in either group.

Lymphopenia was observed in 47% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 42% of placebo-treated patients.

Thrombocytopenia was observed in 46% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 41% of placebo-treated patients; CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia was reported in 4% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and less than 1% of placebo-treated patients.

Hypocalcemia was reported in 27% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 15% of placebo-treated patients. CTCAE Grade 3 hypocalcemia (6–7 mg /dL) occurred in 2% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 1% of placebo-treated patients. CTCAE Grade 4 hypocalcemia ( < 6 mg/dL) occurred in 0.4% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and in no placebo-treated patients.

Hypokalemia was reported in 9.4% of NEXAVAR- treated patients compared to 5.9% of placebo-treated patients. Most reports of hypokalemia were low grade (CTCAE Grade 1). CTCAE Grade 3 hypokalemia occurred in 0.3% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 0.7% of placebo-treated patients. There were no reports of Grade 4 hypokalemia.

Adverse Reactions in RCC Study 1

Table 3 shows the percentage of patients with RCC experiencing adverse reactions that were reported in at least 10% of patients and at a higher rate in the NEXAVAR arm than the placebo arm. CTCAE Grade 3 adverse reactions were reported in 31% of patients receiving NEXAVAR compared to 22% of patients receiving placebo. CTCAE Grade 4 adverse reactions were reported in 7% of patients receiving NEXAVAR compared to 6% of patients receiving placebo.

Table 3: Adverse Reactions Reported in at Least 10% of Patients and at a Higher Rate in NEXAVAR Arm than the Placebo Arm – RCC Study 1

Adverse Reactions NCI- CTCAE v3 Category/Term NEXAVAR
N=451
Placebo
N=451
All Grades % Grade 3 % Grade 4 % All Grades % Grade 3 % Grade 4 %
Any Adverse Reactions 95 31 7 86 22 6
Cardiovascular, General
  Hypertension 17 3 < 1 2 < 1 0
Constitutional symptoms
  Fatigue 37 5 <1 28 3 <1
  Weight loss 10 <1 0 6 0 0
Dermatology/skin
  Rash/desquamation 40 <1 0 16 <1 0
  Hand-foot skin reaction        30 6 0 7 0 0
  Alopecia 27 <1 0 3 0 0
  Pruritus 19 <1 0 6 0 0
  Dry skin 11 0 0 4 0 0
Gastrointestinal symptoms
  Diarrhea 43 2 0 13 <1 0
  Nausea 23 <1 0 19 <1 0
  Anorexia 16 <1 0 13 1 0
  Vomiting 16 <1 0 12 1 0
  Constipation 15 <1 0 11 <1 0
Hemorrhage/bleeding
  Hemorrhage – all sites 15 2 0 8 1 <1
Neurology
  Neuropathy-sensory 13 <1 0 6 <1 0
Pain
  Pain, abdomen 11 2 0 9 2 0
  Pain, joint 10 2 0 6 <1 0
  Pain, headache 10 <1 0 6 <1 0
Pulmonary
  Dyspnea 14 3 <1 12 2 <1

The rate of adverse reactions (including those associated with progressive disease) resulting in permanent discontinuation was similar in both the NEXAVAR and placebo-treated groups (10% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 8% of placebo-treated patients).

Laboratory Abnormalities

The following laboratory abnormalities were observed in patients with RCC in Study 1:

Hypophosphatemia was a common laboratory finding, observed in 45% of NEXAVAR-treated patients compared to 11% of placebo-treated patients. CTCAE Grade 3 hypophosphatemia (1–2 mg/dL) occurred in 13% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 3% of patients in the placebo-treated group. There were no cases of CTCAE Grade 4 hypophosphatemia ( < 1 mg/dL) reported in either NEXAVAR or placebo-treated patients. The etiology of hypophosphatemia associated with NEXAVAR is not known.

Elevated lipase was observed in 41% of patients treated with NEXAVAR compared to 30% of patients in the placebo-treated group. CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 lipase elevations occurred in 12% of patients in the NEXAVAR-treated group compared to 7% of patients in the placebo-treated group. Elevated amylase was observed in 30% of patients treated with NEXAVAR compared to 23% of patients in the placebo-treated group. CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 amylase elevations were reported in 1% of patients in the NEXAVAR-treated group compared to 3% of patients in the placebo-treated group. Many of the lipase and amylase elevations were transient, and in the majority of cases NEXAVAR treatment was not interrupted. Clinical pancreatitis was reported in 3 of 451 NEXAVAR-treated patients (one CTCAE Grade 2 and two Grade 4) and 1 of 451 patients (CTCAE Grade 2) in the placebo-treated group.

Lymphopenia was observed in 23% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 13% of placebo-treated patients. CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 lymphopenia was reported in 13% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 7% of placebo-treated patients. Neutropenia was observed in 18% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 10% of placebo-treated patients. CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was reported in 5% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 2% of placebo-treated patients.

Anemia was observed in 44% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 49% of placebo-treated patients. CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 anemia was reported in 2% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 4% of placebo-treated patients.

Thrombocytopenia was observed in 12% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 5% of placebo-treated patients. CTCAE Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia was reported in 1% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and in no placebo-treated patients.

Hypocalcemia was reported in 12% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 8% of placebo-treated patients. CTCAE Grade 3 hypocalcemia (6–7 mg/dL) occurred in 1% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 0.2% of placebo-treated patients, and CTCAE Grade 4 hypocalcemia ( < 6 mg/dL) occurred in 1% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 0.5% of placebo-treated patients.

Hypokalemia was reported in 5.4% of NEXAVAR-treated patients compared to 0.7% of placebo-treated patients. Most reports of hypokalemia were low grade (CTCAE Grade 1). CTCAE Grade 3 hypokalemia occurred in 1.3% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 0.2% of placebo-treated patients. There were no reports of Grade 4 hypokalemia.

Additional Data from Multiple Clinical Trials

The following additional drug-related adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities were reported from clinical trials of NEXAVAR (very common 10% or greater, common 1 to less than 10%, uncommon 0.1% to less than 1%):

Cardiovascular: Common: congestive heart failure*†, myocardial ischemia and/or infarction Uncommon: hypertensive crisis* Rare: QT prolongation*

Dermatologic: Very common: erythema Common: exfoliative dermatitis, acne, flushing Uncommon: folliculitis, eczema, erythema multiforme, keratoacanthomas/squamous cell cancer of the skin

Digestive: Very common: increased lipase, increased amylase Common: mucositis, stomatitis (including dry mouth and glossodynia), dyspepsia, dysphagia Uncommon: pancreatitis, gastrointestinal reflux, gastritis, gastrointestinal perforations*, cholecystitis, cholangitis

Note that elevations in lipase are very common (41%, see below); a diagnosis of pancreatitis should not be made solely on the basis of abnormal laboratory values

General Disorders: Very common: hemorrhage (including gastrointestinal* & respiratory tract* and uncommon cases of cerebral hemorrhage*), asthenia, pain (including mouth, bone, and tumor pain) Common: decreased appetite, influenza-like illness, pyrexia Uncommon: infection

Hematologic: Very common: leukopenia, lymphopenia Common: anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia Uncommon: INR abnormal

Hypersensitivity: Uncommon: hypersensitivity reactions (including skin reactions and urticaria)

Metabolic and Nutritional: Very common: hypophosphatemia Common: transient increases in transaminases, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia Uncommon: dehydration, hyponatremia, transient increases in alkaline phosphatase, increased bilirubin (including jaundice), hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism

Musculoskeletal: Common: arthralgia, myalgia

Nervous System and Psychiatric: Common: depression Uncommon: tinnitus, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy*

Renal and Genitourinary: Common: renal failure, proteinuria Rare: Nephrotic syndrome

Reproductive: Common: erectile dysfunction Uncommon: gynecomastia

Respiratory: Common: hoarseness Uncommon: rhinorrhea, interstitial lung disease-like events (includes reports of pneumonitis, radiation pneumonitis, acute respiratory distress, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonitis and lung inflammation)

In addition, the following medically significant adverse reactions were uncommon during clinical trials of NEXAVAR: transient ischemic attack, arrhythmia, thromboembolism. For these adverse reactions, the causal relationship to NEXAVAR has not been established.

*adverse reactions may have a life-threatening or fatal outcome.
†reported in 1.9% of patients treated with sorafenib (N= 2276).

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse drug reactions have been identified during post-approval use of NEXAVAR. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Dermatologic: Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)

Hepatobiliary disorders: Drug-induced hepatitis, including reports of hepatic failure and death

Hypersensitivity: Angioedema, anaphylactic reaction

Musculoskeletal: Rhabdomyolysis, osteonecrosis of the jaw

Respiratory: Interstitial lung disease-like events (which may have a life-threatening or fatal outcome)

Read the Nexavar (sorafenib) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Drug Metabolism

Effect of Cytochrome P450 Inducers on Sorafenib

Rifampin, a strong CYP3A4 inducer, administered at a dose of 600 mg once daily for 5 days with a single oral dose of NEXAVAR 400 mg in healthy volunteers resulted in a 37% decrease in the mean AUC of sorafenib. Other inducers of CYP3A4 activity (such as, carbamazepine, dexamethasone, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifabutin, rifampin, St. John's wort) can increase the metabolism of sorafenib and thus, decrease systemic exposure of sorafenib [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Effect of Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors on Sorafenib

Ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, administered at a dose of 400 mg once daily for 7 days did not alter the mean AUC of a single oral dose of NEXAVAR 50 mg in healthy volunteers.

Effect of Sorafenib on Other Drugs

NEXAVAR 400 mg twice daily for 28 days did not increase the systemic exposure of concomitantly administered midazolam (CYP3A4 substrate), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 substrate), and omeprazole (CYP2C19 substrate). [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Neomycin

Neomycin administered as an oral dose of 1 g three times daily for 5 days decreased the mean AUC of sorafenib by 54% in healthy volunteers administered a single oral dose of NEXAVAR 400 mg. The effects of other antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of sorafenib have not been studied [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Drugs that Increase Gastric pH

The aqueous solubility of sorafenib is pH dependent, with higher pH resulting in lower solubility. However, omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, administered at a dose of 40 mg once daily for 5 days, did not result in a clinically meaningful change in sorafenib single dose exposure. No dose adjustment for NEXAVAR is necessary.

Read the Nexavar Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/2/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Side Effects
Interactions
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