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Nexium

"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved the first generic versions of Aciphex (rabeprazole sodium) delayed-release tablets, used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in adults and adolescents (ages 12 and up).

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Nexium

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism Of Action

Esomeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cell. The S- and R-isomers of omeprazole are protonated and converted in the acidic compartment of the parietal cell forming the active inhibitor, the achiral sulphenamide. By acting specifically on the proton pump, esomeprazole blocks the final step in acid production, thus reducing gastric acidity. This effect is dose-related up to a daily dose of 20 to 40 mg and leads to inhibition of gastric acid secretion.

Pharmacodynamics

Antisecretory Activity

The effect of NEXIUM on intragastric pH was determined in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease in two separate studies. In the first study of 36 patients, NEXIUM 40 mg and 20 mg capsules were administered over 5 days. The results are shown in the Table 3:

Table 3: Effect on Intragastric pH on Day 5 (N=36)

Parameter NEXIUM 40 mg NEXIUM 20 mg
% Time Gastric 70%* 53%
pH > 4† (Hours) (16.8 h) (12.7 h)
Coefficient of variation 26% 37%
Median 24 Hour pH 4.9* 4.1
Coefficient of variation 16% 27%
† Gastric pH was measured over a 24-hour period
*p < 0.01 NEXIUM 40 mg vs. NEXIUM 20 mg

In a second study, the effect on intragastric pH of NEXIUM 40 mg administered once daily over a five day period was similar to the first study, (% time with pH > 4 was 68% or 16.3 hours).

Serum Gastrin Effects

The effect of NEXIUM on serum gastrin concentrations was evaluated in approximately 2,700 patients in clinical trials up to 8 weeks and in over 1,300 patients for up to 6 to 12 months. The mean fasting gastrin level increased in a dose-related manner. This increase reached a plateau within two to three months of therapy and returned to baseline levels within four weeks after discontinuation of therapy.

Increased gastrin causes enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased serum Chromogranin A (CgA) levels. The increased CgA levels may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors.

Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) Cell Effects

In 24-month carcinogenicity studies of omeprazole in rats, a dose-related significant occurrence of gastric ECL cell carcinoid tumors and ECL cell hyperplasia was observed in both male and female animals [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. Carcinoid tumors have also been observed in rats subjected to fundectomy or long-term treatment with other proton pump inhibitors or high doses of H2-receptor antagonists.

Human gastric biopsy specimens have been obtained from more than 3,000 patients treated with omeprazole in long-term clinical trials. The incidence of ECL cell hyperplasia in these studies increased with time; however, no case of ECL cell carcinoids, dysplasia, or neoplasia has been found in these patients.

In over 1,000 patients treated with NEXIUM (10, 20 or 40 mg/day) up to 6 to 12 months, the prevalence of ECL cell hyperplasia increased with time and dose. No patient developed ECL cell carcinoids, dysplasia, or neoplasia in the gastric mucosa.

Endocrine Effects

NEXIUM had no effect on thyroid function when given in oral doses of 20 or 40 mg for 4 weeks. Other effects of NEXIUM on the endocrine system were assessed using omeprazole studies. Omeprazole given in oral doses of 30 or 40 mg for 2 to 4 weeks had no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, circulating levels of parathyroid hormone, cortisol, estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, cholecystokinin, or secretin.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

NEXIUM Delayed-Release Capsules and NEXIUM For Delayed-Release Oral Suspension contain a bioequivalent enteric-coated granule formulation of esomeprazole magnesium. Bioequivalency is based on a single dose (40 mg) study in 94 healthy male and female volunteers under fasting condition. After oral administration peak plasma levels (Cmax) occur at approximately 1.5 hours (Tmax). The Cmax increases proportionally when the dose is increased, and there is a three-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 20 to 40 mg. At repeated once-daily dosing with 40 mg, the systemic bioavailability is approximately 90% compared to 64% after a single dose of 40 mg. The mean exposure (AUC) to esomeprazole increases from 4.32 μmol*hr/L on Day 1 to 11.2 μmol*hr/L on Day 5 after 40 mg once daily dosing.

The AUC after administration of a single 40 mg dose of NEXIUM is decreased by 43% to 53% after food intake compared to fasting conditions. NEXIUM should be taken at least one hour before meals.

The pharmacokinetic profile of NEXIUM was determined in 36 patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease following repeated once daily administration of 20 mg and 40 mg capsules of NEXIUM over a period of five days. The results are shown in the Table 4:

Table 4: Pharmacokinetic Parameters of NEXIUM on Day 5 Following Oral Dosing for 5 Days

Parameter* (CV) NEXIUM 40 mg NEXIUM 20 mg
AUC (μmolh/L) 12.6 (42%) 4.2 (59%)
Cmax (μmol/L) 4.7 (37%) 2.1 (45%)
Tmax (h) 1.6 1.6
t½ (h) 1.5 1.2
*Values represent the geometric mean, except the Tmax, which is the arithmetic mean; CV = Coefficient of variation

Distribution

Esomeprazole is 97% bound to plasma proteins. Plasma protein binding is constant over the concentration range of 2 to 20 μmol/L. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state in healthy volunteers is approximately 16 L.

Metabolism

Esomeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system. The metabolites of esomeprazole lack antisecretory activity. The major part of esomeprazole's metabolism is dependent upon the CYP 2C19 isoenzyme, which forms the hydroxy and desmethyl metabolites. The remaining amount is dependent on CYP 3A4 which forms the sulphone metabolite. CYP 2C19 isoenzyme exhibits polymorphism in the metabolism of esomeprazole, since some 3% of Caucasians and 15 to 20% of Asians lack CYP 2C19 and are termed Poor Metabolizers. At steady state, the ratio of AUC in Poor Metabolizers to AUC in the rest of the population (Extensive Metabolizers) is approximately 2.

Following administration of equimolar doses, the S- and R-isomers are metabolized differently by the liver, resulting in higher plasma levels of the S- than of the R-isomer.

Excretion

The plasma elimination half-life of esomeprazole is approximately 1 to 1.5 hours. Less than 1% of parent drug is excreted in the urine. Approximately 80% of an oral dose of esomeprazole is excreted as inactive metabolites in the urine, and the remainder is found as inactive metabolites in the feces.

Pharmacokinetics: Combination Therapy with Antimicrobials

Esomeprazole magnesium 40 mg once daily was given in combination with clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1000 mg twice daily for 7 days to 17 healthy male and female subjects. The mean steady state AUC and Cmax of esomeprazole increased by 70% and 18%, respectively during triple combination therapy compared to treatment with esomeprazole alone. The observed increase in esomeprazole exposure during coadministration with clarithromycin and amoxicillin is not expected to produce significant safety concerns.

The pharmacokinetic parameters for clarithromycin and amoxicillin were similar during triple combination therapy and administration of each drug alone. However, the mean AUC and Cmax for 14-hydroxyclarithromycin increased by 19% and 22%, respectively, during triple combination therapy compared to treatment with clarithromycin alone. This increase in exposure to 14-hydroxyclarithromycin is not considered to be clinically significant.

Concomitant Use with Clopidogrel

Results from a crossover study in healthy subjects have shown a pharmacokinetic interaction between clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose/75 mg daily maintenance dose) and esomeprazole (40 mg p.o. once daily) when co-administered for 30 days. Exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel was reduced by 35% to 40% over this time period. Pharmacodynamic parameters were also measured and demonstrated that the change in inhibition of platelet aggregation was related to the change in the exposure to clopidogrel active metabolite.

Special Populations

Geriatric

The AUC and Cmax values were slightly higher (25% and 18%, respectively) in the elderly as compared to younger subjects at steady state. Dosage adjustment based on age is not necessary.

Pediatric (1 to 11 month of age)

The pharmacokinetic parameters following repeated dose administration of 1.0 mg/kg esomeprazole in 1 to 11 month old infants are summarized in Table 5.

Table 5: Summary of PK parameters in 1 month to < 1 year Olds with GERD Following 7/8 Days of Once-Daily Oral Esomeprazole Treatment

Parameter 1 month to < 1 year1.0 mg/kg
AUC (μmol*h/L) (n=7)* 3.51
Css,max (μmol/L) (n=15)* 0.87
t½ (hours) (n=8)* 0.93
tmax (hours) (n=15)** 3.0
*Geometric mean;
** Median

Subsequent pharmacokinetic simulation analyses showed that a dosage regimen of 2.5 mg once-daily for pediatric patients with body weight 3-5 kg, 5.0 mg once-daily for > 5 to 7.5 kg and 10 mg once-daily for > 7.5 to 12 kg would achieve comparable steady-state plasma exposures (AUC) to that observed after 10 mg in 1 to 11 year olds, and 20 mg in 12 to 18 year-olds as well as adults.

1 to 11 Years of Age

The pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged 1 to 11 years. Following once daily dosing for 5 days, the total exposure (AUC) for the 10 mg dose in patients aged 6 to 11 years was similar to that seen with the 20 mg dose in adults and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. The total exposure for the 10 mg dose in patients aged 1 to 5 years was approximately 30% higher than the 10 mg dose in patients aged 6 to 11 years. The total exposure for the 20 mg dose in patients aged 6 to 11 years was higher than that observed with the 20 mg dose in 12 to 17 year-olds and adults, but lower than that observed with the 40 mg dose in 12 to 17 year-olds and adults. See Table 6.

Table 6: Summary of PK Parameters in 1 to 11 Year Olds with GERD following 5 Days of Once-Daily Oral Esomeprazole Treatment

Parameter 1 to 5 Year Olds 6 to 11 Year Olds
10 mg
(N=8)
10 mg
(N=7)
20 mg
(N=6)
AUC (μmol*h/L)* 4.83 3.70 6.28
Cmax (μmol/L)* 2.98 1.77 3.73
tmax (h)† 1.44 1.79 1.75
t½λ(h)* 0.74 0.88 0.73
Cl/F (L/h)* 5.99 7.84 9.22
*Geometric mean;
†arithmetic mean

12 to 17 Years of Age

The pharmacokinetics of NEXIUM were studied in 28 adolescent patients with GERD aged 12 to 17 years inclusive, in a single center study. Patients were randomized to receive NEXIUM 20 mg or 40 mg once daily for 8 days. Mean Cmax and AUC values of esomeprazole were not affected by body weight or age; and more than dose-proportional increases in mean Cmax and AUC values were observed between the two dose groups in the study. Overall, NEXIUM pharmacokinetics in adolescent patients aged 12 to 17 years were similar to those observed in adult patients with symptomatic GERD. See Table 7.

Table 7: Comparison of PK Parameters in 12 to 17 Year Olds with GERD and Adults with Symptomatic GERD Following the Repeated Daily Oral Dose Administration of Esomeprazole*

  12 to 17 Year Olds
(N=28)
Adults
(N=36)
20 mg 40 mg 20 mg 40 mg
AUC(μmol*h/L) 3.65 13.86 4.2 12.6
Cmax(μmol/L) 1.45 5.13 2.1 4.7
tmax (h) 2.00 1.75 1.6 1.6
t½λz (h) 0.82 1.22 1.2 1.5
Data presented are geometric means for AUC, Cmax and t½λ;z, and median value for tmax.
*Duration of treatment for 12 to 17 year olds and adults were 8 days and 5 days, respectively. Data were obtained from two independent studies.

Gender

The AUC and Cmax values were slightly higher (13%) in females than in males at steady state. Dosage adjustment based on gender is not necessary.

Hepatic Insufficiency

The steady state pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole obtained after administration of 40 mg once daily to 4 patients each with mild (Child Pugh A), moderate (Child Pugh Class B), and severe (Child Pugh Class C) liver insufficiency were compared to those obtained in 36 male and female GERD patients with normal liver function. In patients with mild and moderate hepatic insufficiency, the AUCs were within the range that could be expected in patients with normal liver function. In patients with severe hepatic insufficiency the AUCs were 2 to 3 times higher than in the patients with normal liver function. No dosage adjustment is recommended for patients with mild to moderate hepatic insufficiency (Child Pugh Classes A and B). However, in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency (Child Pugh Class C) a dose of 20 mg once daily should not be exceeded [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].

Renal Insufficiency

The pharmacokinetics of NEXIUM in patients with renal impairment are not expected to be altered relative to healthy volunteers as less than 1% of esomeprazole is excreted unchanged in urine.

Other pharmacokinetic observations

Co-administration of oral contraceptives, diazepam, phenytoin, or quinidine did not seem to change the pharmacokinetic profile of esomeprazole.

Studies evaluating concomitant administration of esomeprazole and either naproxen (nonselective NSAID) or rofecoxib (COX-2 selective NSAID) did not identify any clinically relevant changes in the pharmacokinetic profiles of esomeprazole or these NSAIDs.

Microbiology

NEXIUM, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin triple therapy has been shown to be active against most strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in vitro and in clinical infections [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE and Clinical Studies].

Helicobacter pylori: Susceptibility testing of H. pylori isolates was performed for amoxicillin and clarithromycin using agar dilution methodology, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined.

Pretreatment Resistance: Clarithromycin pretreatment resistance rate (MIC ≥ 1 mcg/mL) to H. pylori was 15% (66/445) at baseline in all treatment groups combined. A total of > 99% (394/395) of patients had H. pylori isolates that were considered to be susceptible (MIC ≤ 0.25 mcg/mL) to amoxicillin at baseline. One patient had a baseline H. pylori isolate with an amoxicillin MIC = 0.5 mcg/mL.

Clarithromycin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriologic Outcomes: The baseline H. pylori clarithromycin susceptibility results and the H. pylori eradication results at the Day 38 visit are shown in the Table 8:

Table 8: Clarithromycin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes a for Triple Therapy - (Esomeprazole magnesium 40 mg once daily/amoxicillin 1000 mg twice daily/clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily for 10 days)

Clarithromycin Pretreatment Results H. pylori negative (Eradicated) H. pylori positive (Not Eradicated) Post-treatment susceptibility results
Sb Ib Rb No MIC
Susceptibleb 182 162 4 0 2 14
Intermediateb 1 1 0 0 0 0
Resistantb 29 13 1 0 13 2
aIncludes only patients with pretreatment and post-treatment clarithromycin susceptibility test results
bSusceptible (S) MIC ≤ 0.25 mcg/mL, Intermediate (I) MIC = 0.5 mcg/mL, Resistant (R) MIC ≥ 1.0 mcg/mL

Patients not eradicated of H. pylori following NEXIUM/amoxicillin/clarithromycin triple therapy will likely have clarithromycin resistant H. pylori isolates. Therefore, clarithromycin susceptibility testing should be done, when possible. Patients with clarithromycin resistant H. pylori should not be re-treated with a clarithromycin-containing regimen.

Amoxicillin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes: In the NEXIUM/amoxicillin/clarithromycin clinical trials, 83% (176/212) of the patients in the NEXIUM/amoxicillin/clarithromycin treatment group who had pretreatment amoxicillin susceptible MICs ( ≤ 0.25 mcg/mL) were eradicated of H. pylori, and 17% (36/212) were not eradicated of H. pylori. Of the 36 patients who were not eradicated of H. pylori on triple therapy, 16 had no post-treatment susceptibility test results and 20 had post-treatment H. pylori isolates with amoxicillin susceptible MICs. Fifteen of the patients who were not eradicated of H. pylori on triple therapy also had post-treatment H. pylori isolates with clarithromycin resistant MICs. There were no patients with H. pylori isolates who developed treatment emergent resistance to amoxicillin.

Susceptibility Test for Helicobacter pylori: For susceptibility testing information about Helicobacter pylori, see Microbiology section in prescribing information for clarithromycin and amoxicillin.

Effects on Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology: Decreased gastric acidity due to any means, including proton pump inhibitors, increases gastric counts of bacteria normally present in the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors may lead to slightly increased risk of gastrointestinal infections such as Salmonella and Campylobacter and possibly Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients.

Animal Toxicology And/Or Pharmacology

Reproduction Studies

Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at oral doses up to 280 mg/kg/day (about 57 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at oral doses up to 86 mg/kg/day (about 35 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to esomeprazole [see Pregnancy, Animal Data].

Juvenile Animal Study

A 28-day toxicity study with a 14-day recovery phase was conducted in juvenile rats with esomeprazole magnesium at doses of 70 to 280 mg /kg/day (about 17 to 57 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). An increase in the number of deaths at the high dose of 280 mg /kg/day was observed when juvenile rats were administered esomeprazole magnesium from postnatal day 7 through postnatal day 35. In addition, doses equal to or greater than 140 mg/kg/day (about 34 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis), produced treatment-related decreases in body weight (approximately 14%) and body weight gain, decreases in femur weight and femur length, and affected overall growth. Comparable findings described above have also been observed in this study with another esomeprazole salt, esomeprazole strontium, at equimolar doses of esomeprazole.

Clinical Studies

Healing Of Erosive Esophagitis

The healing rates of NEXIUM 40 mg, NEXIUM 20 mg, and omeprazole 20 mg (the approved dose for this indication) were evaluated in patients with endoscopically diagnosed erosive esophagitis in four multicenter, double-blind, randomized studies. The healing rates at Weeks 4 and 8 were evaluated and are shown in the Table 9:

Table 9: Erosive Esophagitis Healing Rate (Life-Table Analysis)

Study No. of Patients Treatment Groups Week 4 Week 8 Significance Level *
1 588 NEXIUM 20 mg 68.7% 90.6% N.S.
588 Omeprazole 20 mg 69.5% 88.3%
2 654 NEXIUM 40 mg 75.9% 94.1% p < 0.001
656 NEXIUM 20 mg 70.5% 89.9% p < 0.05
650 Omeprazole 20 mg 64.7% 86.9%
3 576 NEXIUM 40 mg 71.5% 92.2% N.S.
572 Omeprazole 20 mg 68.6% 89.8%
4 1216 NEXIUM 40 mg 81.7% 93.7% p < 0.001
1209 Omeprazole 20 mg 68.7% 84.2%
*log-rank test vs. omeprazole 20 mg
N.S. = not significant (p > 0.05).

In these same studies of patients with erosive esophagitis, sustained heartburn resolution and time to sustained heartburn resolution were evaluated and are shown in the Table 10:

Table 10: Sustained Resolution‡ of Heartburn (Erosive Esophagitis Patients)

Study No. of Patients Treatment Groups Cumulative Percent# with Sustained Resolution
Day 14 Day 28 Significance Level *
1 573 NEXIUM 20 mg 64.3% 72.7% N.S.
555 Omeprazole 20 mg 64.1% 70.9%
2 621 NEXIUM 40 mg 64.8% 74.2% p < 0.001
620 NEXIUM 20 mg 62.9% 70.1% N.S.
626 Omeprazole 20 mg 56.5% 66.6%
3 568 NEXIUM 40 mg 65.4% 73.9% N.S.
551 Omeprazole 20 mg 65.5% 73.1% m
4 1187 NEXIUM 40 mg 67.6% 75.1% p < 0.001
1188 Omeprazole 20 mg 62.5% 70.8%
‡Defined as 7 consecutive days with no heartburn reported in daily patient diary.
#Defined as the cumulative proportion of patients who have reached the start of sustained resolution
*log-rank test vs. omeprazole 20 mg
N.S. = not significant (p > 0.05).

In these four studies, the range of median days to the start of sustained resolution (defined as 7 consecutive days with no heartburn) was 5 days for NEXIUM 40 mg, 7 to 8 days for NEXIUM 20 mg and 7 to 9 days for omeprazole 20 mg.

There are no comparisons of 40 mg of NEXIUM with 40 mg of omeprazole in clinical trials assessing either healing or symptomatic relief of erosive esophagitis.

Long-Term Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis

Two multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 4-arm trials were conducted in patients with endoscopically confirmed, healed erosive esophagitis to evaluate NEXIUM 40 mg (n=174), 20 mg (n=180), 10 mg (n=168) or placebo (n=171) once daily over six months of treatment.

No additional clinical benefit was seen with NEXIUM 40 mg over NEXIUM 20 mg.

The percentages of patients that maintained healing of erosive esophagitis at the various time points are shown in the Figures 2 and 3:

Figure 2: Maintenance of Healing Rates by Month (Study 177)

Maintenance of Healing Rates by Month (Study 177) - Illustration

s= scheduled visit

Figure 3: Maintenance of Healing Rates by Month (Study 178)

Maintenance of Healing Rates by Month (Study 178) - Illustration

s= scheduled visit

Patients remained in remission significantly longer and the number of recurrences of erosive esophagitis was significantly less in patients treated with NEXIUM compared to placebo.

In both studies, the proportion of patients on NEXIUM who remained in remission and were free of heartburn and other GERD symptoms was well differentiated from placebo.

In a third multicenter open label study of 808 patients treated for 12 months with NEXIUM 40 mg, the percentage of patients that maintained healing of erosive esophagitis was 93.7% for six months and 89.4% for one year.

Symptomatic Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were conducted in a total of 717 patients comparing four weeks of treatment with NEXIUM 20 mg or 40 mg once daily versus placebo for resolution of GERD symptoms. Patients had ≥ 6-month history of heartburn episodes, no erosive esophagitis by endoscopy, and heartburn on at least four of the seven days immediately preceding randomization.

The percentage of patients that were symptom-free of heartburn was significantly higher in the NEXIUM groups compared to placebo at all follow-up visits (Weeks 1, 2, and 4).

No additional clinical benefit was seen with NEXIUM 40 mg over NEXIUM 20 mg.

The percent of patients symptom-free of heartburn by day are shown in the Figures 4 and 5:

Figure 4: Percent of Patients Symptom-Free of Heartburn by Day (Study 225)

Percent of Patients Symptom-Free of Heartburn by Day (Study 225) - Illustration

Figure 5: Percent of Patients Symptom-Free of Heartburn by Day (Study 226)

Percent of Patients Symptom-Free of Heartburn by Day (Study 226) - Illustration

In three European symptomatic GERD trials, NEXIUM 20 mg and 40 mg and omeprazole 20 mg were evaluated. No significant treatment related differences were seen.

Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

1 to 11 Years of Age

In a multicenter, parallel-group study, 109 pediatric patients with a history of endoscopicallyproven GERD (1 to 11 years of age; 53 female; 89 Caucasian, 19 Black, 1 Other) were treated with NEXIUM once daily for up to 8 weeks to evaluate safety and tolerability. Dosing by patient weight was as follows:

weight < 20 kg: once daily treatment with NEXIUM 5 mg or 10 mg

weight ≥ 20 kg: once daily treatment with NEXIUM 10 mg or 20 mg

Patients were endoscopically characterized as to the presence or absence of erosive esophagitis.

Of the 109 patients, 53 had erosive esophagitis at baseline (51 had mild, 1 moderate, and 1 severe esophagitis). Although most of the patients who had a follow up endoscopy at the end of 8 weeks of treatment healed, spontaneous healing cannot be ruled out because these patients had low grade erosive esophagitis prior to treatment, and the trial did not include a concomitant control.

12 to 17 Years of Age

In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, 149 adolescent patients (12 to 17 years of age; 89 female; 124 Caucasian, 15 Black, 10 Other) with clinically diagnosed GERD were treated with either NEXIUM 20 mg or NEXIUM 40 mg once daily for up to 8 weeks to evaluate safety and tolerability. Patients were not endoscopically characterized as to the presence or absence of erosive esophagitis.

Risk Reduction Of NSAID-Associated Gastric Ulcer

Two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were conducted in patients at risk of developing gastric and/or duodenal ulcers associated with continuous use of non-selective and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. A total of 1429 patients were randomized across the 2 studies. Patients ranged in age from 19 to 89 (median age 66.0 years) with 70.7% female, 29.3% male, 82.9% Caucasian, 5.5% Black, 3.7% Asian, and 8.0% Others. At baseline, the patients in these studies were endoscopically confirmed not to have ulcers but were determined to be at risk for ulcer occurrence due to their age ( > 60 years) and/or history of a documented gastric or duodenal ulcer within the past 5 years. Patients receiving NSAIDs and treated with NEXIUM 20 mg or 40 mg once-a-day experienced significant reduction in gastric ulcer occurrences relative to placebo treatment at 26 weeks. See Table 11. No additional benefit was seen with NEXIUM 40 mg over NEXIUM 20 mg. These studies did not demonstrate significant reduction in the development of NSAID-associated duodenal ulcer due to the low incidence.

Table 11: Cumulative percentage of patients without gastric ulcers at 26 weeks:

Study No. of Patients Treatment Group % of Patients Remaining Gastric Ulcer Free1
1 191 NEXIUM 20 mg 95.4
194 NEXIUM 40 mg 96.7
184 Placebo 88.2
2 267 NEXIUM 20 mg 94.7
271 NEXIUM 40 mg 95.3
257 Placebo 83.3
1%= Life Table Estimate. Significant difference from placebo (p < 0.01).

Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) Eradication in Patients With Duodenal Ulcer

Disease Triple Therapy (NEXIUM/amoxicillin/clarithromycin): Two multicenter, randomized, double-blind studies were conducted using a 10 day treatment regimen. The first study (191) compared NEXIUM 40 mg once daily in combination with amoxicillin 1000 mg twice daily and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily to NEXIUM 40 mg once daily plus clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily. The second study (193) compared NEXIUM 40 mg once daily in combination with amoxicillin 1000 mg twice daily and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily to NEXIUM 40 mg once daily. H. pylori eradication rates, defined as at least two negative tests and no positive tests from CLOtest®, histology and/or culture, at 4 weeks post-therapy were significantly higher in the NEXIUM plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin group than in the NEXIUM plus clarithromycin or NEXIUM alone group. The results are shown in Table 12:

Table 12: H. pylori Eradication Rates at 4 Weeks after 10 Day Treatment Regimen % of Patients Cured [95% Confidence Interval] (Number of Patients)

Study Treatment Group Per-Protocol† Intent-to-Treat‡
191 NEXIUM plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin 84%* 77%*
[78, 89] [71, 82]
(n=196) (n=233)
NEXIUM plus clarithromycin 55% 52%
[48, 62] [45, 59]
(n=187) (n=215)
193 NEXIUM plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin 85%** 78%**
[74, 93] [67, 87]
(n=67) (n=74)
NEXIUM 5% 4%
[0, 23] [0, 21]
(n=22) (n=24)
† Patients were included in the analysis if they had H. pylori infection documented at baseline, had at least one endoscopically verified duodenal ulcer ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter at baseline or had a documented history of duodenal ulcer disease within the past 5 years, and were not protocol violators. Patients who dropped out of the study due to an adverse reaction related to the study drug were included in the analysis as not H. pylori eradicated.
‡ Patients were included in the analysis if they had documented H. pylori infection at baseline, had at least one documented duodenal ulcer at baseline, or had a documented history of duodenal ulcer disease, and took at least one dose of study medication. All dropouts were included as not H. pylori eradicated.
*p < 0.05 compared to NEXIUM plus clarithromycin
**p < 0.05 compared to NEXIUM alone

The percentage of patients with a healed baseline duodenal ulcer by 4 weeks after the 10 day treatment regimen in the NEXIUM plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin group was 75% (n=156) and 57% (n=60) respectively, in the 191 and 193 studies (per-protocol analysis).

Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions Including Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

In a multicenter, open-label dose-escalation study of 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, 18 Caucasian and 3 Black, mean age of 55.5 years) with pathological hypersecretory conditions, such as Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, NEXIUM significantly inhibited gastric acid secretion. Initial dose was 40 mg twice daily in 19/21 patients and 80 mg twice daily in 2/21 patients. Total daily doses ranging from 80 mg to 240 mg for 12 months maintained gastric acid output below the target levels of 10 mEq/h in patients without prior gastric acid-reducing surgery and below 5 mEq/hr in patients with prior gastric acid-reducing surgery. At the Month 12 final visit, 18/20 (90%) patients had Basal Acid Output (BAO) under satisfactory control (median BAO = 0.17 mmol/hr). Of the 18 patients evaluated with a starting dose of 40 mg twice daily, 13 (72%) had their BAO controlled with the original dosing regimen at the final visit. See Table 13.

Table 13: Adequate Acid Suppression at Final Visit by Dose Regimen

NEXIUM dose at the Month 12 visit BAO under adequate control at the Month 12 visit
(N=20)*
40 mg twice daily 13/15
80 mg twice daily 4/4
80 mg three times daily 1/1
*One patient was not evaluated.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/11/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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