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Headache, which may be severe and persistent, may occur immediately after nitroglycerin use.
Postural hypotension, as manifest by vertigo, weakness, palpitation, and other symptoms, may develop occasionally, particularly in erect, immobile patients. Marked sensitivity to the hypotensive effects of nitrates (manifested by nausea, vomiting, weakness, diaphoresia, pallor, and collapse) may occur at therapeutic doses.
Syncope due to nitrate vasodilatation has been reported.
Read the NitroMist (nitroglycerin lingual aerosol) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Administration of NitroMist (nitroglycerin lingual aerosol) is contraindicated in patients who are using a selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). PDE5 inhibitors such as sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil have been shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of organic nitrates.
The time course and dose dependence of this interaction have not been studied, and use within a few days of one another cannot be recommended. Appropriate supportive care for the severe hypotension has not been studied, but it seems reasonable to treat this as a nitrate overdose, with elevation of the extremities and with central volume expansion. The use of any form of nitroglycerin during the early days of acute myocardial infarction requires particular attention to hemodynamic monitoring and clinical status.
Patients receiving antihypertensive drugs, beta-adrenergic blockers, and nitrates should be observed for possible additive hypotensive effects. Marked orthostatic hypotension has been reported when calcium channel blockers and organic nitrates were used concomitantly.
Labetolol blunts the reflex tachycardia produced by nitroglycerin without preventing its hypotensive effects. If labetolol is used with nitroglycerin in patients with angina pectoris, additional hypotensive effects may occur.
Coadministration of aspirin and nitroglycerin has been reported to result in increased nitroglycerin maximum concentrations by as much as 67% and AUC by 73% when administered as a single dose. The vasodilatory and hemodynamic effects of nitroglycerin may be enhanced by concomitant administration of aspirin.
Tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (t-PA)
Intravenous administration of nitroglycerin decreases the thrombolytic effect of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). Plasma levels of t-PA are reduced when coadministered with nitroglycerin. Therefore, caution should be observed in patients receiving nitroglycerin during t-PA therapy.
Intravenous nitroglycerin reduces the anticoagulant effect of heparin. Activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT) should be monitored in patients receiving heparin and intravenous nitroglycerin. It is not known if this effect occurs following single nitroglycerin doses.
Oral administration of nitroglycerin markedly decreases the first-pass metabolism of dihydroergotamine and subsequently increases its oral bio availability. Ergotamine is known to precipitate angina pectoris. Therefore, patients receiving sublingual nitroglycerin should avoid ergotamine and related drugs or be monitored for symptoms of ergotism if this is not possible.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/26/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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