"(Reuters Health) - There are no high-quality trials assessing whether using antibiotics or antiseptics on open surgical wounds speeds healing by slowing the growth of dangerous microorganisms, according to a new Cochrane review.
In clinical trials involving 82 healthy subjects and 228 patients with gonorrhea, treated with a single dose of norfloxacin, 6.5% reported drug-related adverse experiences. However, the following incidence figures were calculated without reference to drug relationship.
The most common adverse experiences ( > 1.0%) were: dizziness (2.6%), nausea (2.6%), headache (2.0%), and abdominal cramping (1.6%).
Laboratory adverse changes considered drug-related were reported in 4.5% of patients/subjects. These laboratory changes were: increased AST (SGOT) (1.6%), decreased WBC (1.3%), decreased platelet count (1.0%), increased urine protein (1.0%), decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin (0.6%), and increased eosinophils (0.6%).
In clinical trials involving 52 healthy subjects and 1980 patients with urinary tract infections or prostatitis treated with multiple doses of norfloxacin, 3.6% reported drug-related adverse experiences. However, the incidence figures below were calculated without reference to drug relationship.
The most common adverse experiences ( > 1.0%) were: nausea (4.2%), headache (2.8%), dizziness (1.7%), and asthenia (1.3%).
Additional reactions (0.3%-1.0%) were: abdominal pain, back pain, constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, dyspepsia/heartburn, fever, flatulence, hyperhidrosis, loose stools, pruritus, rash, somnolence, and vomiting.
Less frequent reactions (0.1%-0.2%) included: abdominal swelling, allergies, anorexia, anxiety, bitter taste, blurred vision, bursitis, chest pain, chills, depression, dysmenorrhea, edema, erythema, foot or hand swelling, insomnia, mouth ulcer, myocardial infarction, palpitation, pruritus ani, renal colic, sleep disturbances, and urticaria.
Abnormal laboratory values observed in these patients/subjects were: eosinophilia (1.5%), elevation of ALT (SGPT) (1.4%), decreased WBC and/or neutrophil count (1.4%), elevation of AST (SGOT) (1.4%), and increased alkaline phosphatase (1.1%). Those occurring less frequently included increased BUN, increased LDH, increased serum creatinine, decreased hematocrit, and glycosuria.
The most frequently reported adverse reaction in post-marketing experience is rash.
The following additional adverse reactions have been reported since the drug was marketed:
Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions (see PRECAUTIONS), leukocytoclastic vasculitis, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome).
Pseudomembranous colitis, hepatitis, jaundice including cholestatic jaundice and elevated liver function tests, pancreatitis (rare), stomatitis. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS).
Hepatic failure, including fatal cases.
Other adverse events reported with quinolones include: agranulocytosis, albuminuria, candiduria, crystalluria, cylindruria, dysphagia, elevation of blood glucose, elevation of serum cholesterol, elevation of serum potassium, elevation of serum triglycerides, hematuria, hepatic necrosis, symptomatic hypoglycemia, nystagmus, postural hypotension, prolongation of prothrombin time, and vaginal candidiasis.
Read the Noroxin (norfloxacin) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Quinolones, including NOROXIN, have been shown in vitro to inhibit CYP1A2. Concomitant use with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2 (e.g., caffeine, clozapine, ropinirole, tacrine, theophylline, tizanidine) may result in increased substrate drug concentrations when given in usual doses. Patients taking any of these drugs concomitantly with norfloxacin should be carefully monitored.
Elevated plasma levels of theophylline have been reported with concomitant quinolone use. There have been reports of theophylline-related side effects in patients on concomitant therapy with norfloxacin and theophylline. Therefore, monitoring of theophylline plasma levels should be considered and dosage of theophylline adjusted as required.
Elevated serum levels of cyclosporine have been reported with concomitant use of cyclosporine with NOROXIN. Therefore, cyclosporine serum levels should be monitored and appropriate cyclosporine dosage adjustments made when these drugs are used concomitantly.
Quinolones, including NOROXIN, may enhance the effects of oral anticoagulants, including warfarin or its derivatives or similar agents. When these products are administered concomitantly, prothrombin time or other suitable coagulation tests should be closely monitored.
The concomitant administration of quinolones including NOROXIN with glyburide (a sulfonylurea agent) has, on rare occasions, resulted in severe hypoglycemia. Therefore, monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are co-administered.
Diminished urinary excretion of NOROXIN has been reported during the concomitant administration of probenecid and NOROXIN.
The concomitant use of nitrofurantoin is not recommended since nitrofurantoin may antagonize the antibacterial effect of NOROXIN in the urinary tract.
Multivitamins, or other products containing iron or zinc, antacids or sucralfate, should not be administered concomitantly with, or within 2 hours of, the administration of NOROXIN, because they may interfere with absorption resulting in lower serum and urine levels of NOROXIN.
Videx® (Didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution should not be administered concomitantly with, or within 2 hours of, the administration of NOROXIN, because these products may interfere with absorption resulting in lower serum and urine levels of NOROXIN.
Some quinolones have also been shown to interfere with the metabolism of caffeine. This may lead to reduced clearance of caffeine and a prolongation of the plasma half-life that may lead to accumulation of caffeine in plasma when products containing caffeine are consumed while taking NOROXIN.
The concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with a quinolone, including NOROXIN, may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures. Therefore, NOROXIN should be used with caution in individuals receiving NSAIDS concomitantly.
Read the Noroxin Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/4/2016
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