"Introduction to drugs for the treatment of multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to the degeneration of nerves in the brain and spinal cord. The immune "...
(mitoxantrone) for Injection Concentrate
NOVANTRONE® (mitoxantrone for injection concentrate) should be administered under the supervision of a physician experienced in the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy agents.
NOVANTRONE® should be given slowly into a freely flowing intravenous infusion. It must never be given subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intra-arterially. Severe local tissue damage may occur if there is extravasation during administration. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS, General, Cutaneous and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Preparation and Administration Precautions).
NOT FOR INTRATHECAL USE. Severe injury with permanent sequelae can result from intrathecal administration. (See WARNINGS, General)
Except for the treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, NOVANTRONE® therapy generally should not be given to patients with baseline neutrophil counts of less than 1,500 cells/mm³. In order to monitor the occurrence of bone marrow suppression, primarily neutropenia, which may be severe and result in infection, it is recommended that frequent peripheral blood cell counts be performed on all patients receiving NOVANTRONE®.
Congestive heart failure (CHF), potentially fatal, may occur either during therapy with NOVANTRONE® or months to years after termination of therapy. Cardiotoxicity risk increases with cumulative NOVANTRONE dose and may occur whether or not cardiac risk factors are present. Presence or history of cardiovascular disease, radiotherapy to the mediastinal/pericardial area, previous therapy with other anthracyclines or anthracenediones, or use of other cardiotoxic drugs may increase this risk. In cancer patients, the risk of symptomatic CHF was estimated to be 2.6% for patients receiving up to a cumulative dose of 140 mg/m². To mitigate the cardiotoxicity risk with NOVANTRONE, prescribers should consider the following:
- All patients should be assessed for cardiac signs and symptoms by history, physical examination, and ECG prior to start of NOVANTRONE® therapy.
- All patients should have baseline quantitative evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using appropriate methodology (ex. Echocardiogram, multi-gated radionuclide angiography (MUGA), MRI, etc.).
Multiple Sclerosis Patients
- MS patients with a baseline LVEF below the lower limit of normal should not be treated with NOVANTRONE®.
- MS patients should be assessed for cardiac signs and symptoms by history, physical examination and ECG prior to each dose.
- MS patients should undergo quantitative reevaluation of LVEF prior to each dose using the same methodology that was used to assess baseline LVEF. Additional doses of NOVANTRONE® should not be administered to multiple sclerosis patients who have experienced either a drop in LVEF to below the lower limit of normal or a clinically significant reduction in LVEF during NOVANTRONE® therapy.
- MS patients should not receive a cumulative NOVANTRONE dose greater than 140 mg/m².
- MS patients should undergo yearly quantitative LVEF evaluation after stopping NOVANTRONE to monitor for late occurring cardiotoxicity.
NOVANTRONE® therapy in patients with MS and in patients with cancer increases the risk of developing secondary acute myeloid leukemia.
NOVANTRONE® (mitoxantrone hydrochloride) is a synthetic antineoplastic anthracenedione for intravenous use. The molecular formula is C22H28N4O6•2HCl and the molecular weight is 517.41. It is supplied as a concentrate that MUST BE DILUTED PRIOR TO INJECTION. The concentrate is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, dark blue aqueous solution containing mitoxantrone hydrochloride equivalent to 2 mg/mL mitoxantrone free base, with sodium chloride (0.80% w/v), sodium acetate (0.005% w/v), and acetic acid (0.046% w/v) as inactive ingredients. The solution has a pH of 3.0 to 4.5 and contains 0.14 mEq of sodium per mL. The product does not contain preservatives. The chemical name is 1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis[[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl) amino]ethyl]amino]-9,10anthracenedione dihydrochloride and the structural formula is:
What are the possible side effects of mitoxantrone (Novantrone)?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
- signs of infection such as fever, chills, sore throat, flu symptoms, easy bruising or bleeding (nosebleeds, bleeding gums), loss of appetite, mouth sores, unusual weakness;
- pain or burning when you urinate;
- fast, slow, or uneven heart rate;
- severe or ongoing nausea or diarrhea;
- black, bloody, or tarry...
What are the precautions when taking mitoxantrone for injection concentrate (Novantrone)?
Before using mitoxantrone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: blood/bleeding disorders (e.g., anemia, low blood cell counts), heart disease (e.g., congestive heart failure, irregular heartbeat), liver disease, radiation treatment, recent/current infection.
Do not have immunizations/vaccinations without the consent of your doctor, and avoid contact with people who have recently received oral polio vaccine or flu vaccine inhaled through the nose. Wash your hands well to prevent...
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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