"Nov. 16, 2012 -- Air pollution may be bad for older brains, a new study shows.
Older adults who live in areas of high pollution did not do as well on tests of memory and other thinking skills, according to a new study.
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Details with Side Effects
NOVANTRONE is indicated for reducing neurologic disability and/or the frequency of clinical relapses in patients with secondary (chronic) progressive, progressive relapsing, or worsening relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (i.e., patients whose neurologic status is significantly abnormal between relapses). NOVANTRONE is not indicated in the treatment of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.
The clinical patterns of multiple sclerosis in the studies were characterized as follows: secondary progressive and progressive relapsing disease were characterized by gradual increasing disability with or without superimposed clinical relapses, and worsening relapsing-remitting disease was characterized by clinical relapses resulting in a step-wise worsening of disability.
NOVANTRONE in combination with corticosteroids is indicated as initial chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with pain related to advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
NOVANTRONE in combination with other approved drug(s) is indicated in the initial therapy of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) in adults. This category includes myelogenous, promyelocytic, monocytic, and erythroid acute leukemias.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
(See also WARNINGS)
The recommended dosage of NOVANTRONE is 12 mg/m² given as a short (approximately 5 to 15 minutes) intravenous infusion every 3 months. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) should be evaluated by echocardiogram or MUGA prior to administration of the initial dose of NOVANTRONE and all subsequent doses. In addition, LVEF evaluations are recommended if signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure develop at any time during treatment with NOVANTRONE NOVANTRONE should not be administered to multiple sclerosis patients with an LVEF < 50%, with a clinically significant reduction in LVEF, or to those who have received a cumulative lifetime dose of ≥ 140 mg/m². Complete blood counts, including platelets, should be monitored prior to each course of NOVANTRONE and in the event that signs or symptoms of infection develop. NOVANTRONE generally should not be administered to multiple sclerosis patients with neutrophil counts less than 1500 cells/mm³. Liver function tests should also be monitored prior to each course. NOVANTRONE therapy in multiple sclerosis patients with abnormal liver function tests is not recommended because NOVANTRONE clearance is reduced by hepatic impairment and no laboratory measurement can predict drug clearance and dose adjustments.
Women with multiple sclerosis who are biologically capable of becoming pregnant, even if they are using birth control, should have a pregnancy test, and the results should be known, before receiving each dose of NOVANTRONE (see WARNINGS, Pregnancy).
Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer
Based on data from two Phase 3 comparative trials of NOVANTRONE plus corticosteroids versus corticosteroids alone, the recommended dosage of NOVANTRONE is 12 to 14 mg/m² given as a short intravenous infusion every 21 days.
Combination Initial Therapy for ANLL in Adults
For induction, the recommended dosage is 12 mg/m² of NOVANTRONE daily on Days 1-3 given as an intravenous infusion, and 100 mg/m² of cytarabine for 7 days given as a continuous 24-hour infusion on Days 1-7.
Most complete remissions will occur following the initial course of induction therapy. In the event of an incomplete antileukemic response, a second induction course may be given. NOVANTRONE should be given for 2 days and cytarabine for 5 days using the same daily dosage levels.
If severe or life-threatening nonhematologic toxicity is observed during the first induction course, the second induction course should be withheld until toxicity resolves.
Consolidation therapy which was used in two large randomized multicenter trials consisted of NOVANTRONE, 12 mg/m² given by intravenous infusion daily on Days 1 and 2 and cytarabine, 100 mg/m² for 5 days given as a continuous 24-hour infusion on Days 1-5. The first course was given approximately 6 weeks after the final induction course; the second was generally administered 4 weeks after the first. Severe myelosuppression occurred. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY)
For patients with hepatic impairment, there is at present no laboratory measurement that allows for dose adjustment recommendations. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Populations, Hepatic Impairment)
Preparation and Administration Precautions
NOVANTRONE CONCENTRATE MUST BE DILUTED PRIOR TO USE.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.
The dose of NOVANTRONE should be diluted to at least 50 mL with either 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection (USP) or 5% Dextrose Injection (USP). NOVANTRONE may be further diluted into Dextrose 5% in Water, Normal Saline or Dextrose 5% with Normal Saline and used immediately. DO NOT FREEZE.
NOVANTRONE should not be mixed in the same infusion as heparin since a precipitate may form. Because specific compatibility data are not available, it is recommended that NOVANTRONE not be mixed in the same infusion with other drugs. The diluted solution should be introduced slowly into the tubing as a freely running intravenous infusion of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection (USP) or 5% Dextrose Injection (USP) over a period of not less than 3 minutes. Unused infusion solutions should be discarded immediately in an appropriate fashion. In the case of multidose use, after penetration of the stopper, the remaining portion of the undiluted NOVANTRONE concentrate should be stored not longer than 7 days between 15°-25°C (59°-77°F) or 14 days under refrigeration. DO NOT FREEZE. CONTAINS NO PRESERVATIVE.
Care in the administration of NOVANTRONE will reduce the chance of extravasation. NOVANTRONE should be administered into the tubing of a freely running intravenous infusion of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP. The tubing should be attached to a Butterfly needle or other suitable device and inserted preferably into a large vein. If possible, avoid veins over joints or in extremities with compromised venous or lymphatic drainage. Care should be taken to avoid extravasation at the infusion site and to avoid contact of NOVANTRONE with the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. NOVANTRONE SHOULD NOT BE ADMINISTERED SUBCUTANEOUSLY. If any signs or symptoms of extravasation have occurred, including burning, pain, pruritis, erythema, swelling, blue discoloration, or ulceration, the injection or infusion should be immediately terminated and restarted in another vein. During intravenous administration of NOVANTRONE extravasation may occur with or without an accompanying stinging or burning sensation even if blood returns well on aspiration of the infusion needle. If it is known or suspected that subcutaneous extravasation has occurred, it is recommended that intermittent ice packs be placed over the area of extravasation and that the affected extremity be elevated. Because of the progressive nature of extravasation reactions, the area of injection should be frequently examined and surgery consultation obtained early if there is any sign of a local reaction.
Skin accidentally exposed to NOVANTRONE should be rinsed copiously with warm water and if the eyes are involved, standard irrigation techniques should be used immediately. The use of goggles, gloves, and protective gowns is recommended during preparation and administration of the drug.
Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published.1-4 There is no general agreement that all of the procedures recommended in the guidelines are necessary or appropriate.
NOVANTRONE® (mitoxantrone for injection concentrate) is a sterile aqueous solution containing mitoxantrone hydrochloride at a concentration equivalent to 2 mg mitoxantrone free base per mL supplied in vials for multidose use as follows:
NDC 44087-1520-1 -20 mg/10 mL/multidose vial (2 mg/mL)
NOVANTRONE® (mitoxantrone for injection concentrate) should be stored between 15°-25°C (59°-77°F). DO NOT FREEZE.
1. NIOSH Alert: Preventing occupational exposures to antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings. 2004. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-165.
2. OSHA Technical Manual, TED 1-0.15A, Section VI: Chapter 2. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. OSHA, 1999. http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm_vi_2.html.
3. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2006) ASHP Guidelines on Handling Hazardous Drugs.
4. Polovich, M., White, J.M., & Kelleher, L.O. (eds.) 2005. Chemotherapy and biotherapy guidelines and recommendations for practice (2nd ed.) Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society.
Issue Date: March/2012. Manufactured for: EMD Serono, Inc. Rockland, MA 02370 USA
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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