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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (cont.)

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What happens if OCD is not treated? What are complications of obsessive compulsive disorder?

Without treatment, the symptoms of OCD can progress to the point that the sufferer's life becomes consumed, inhibiting their ability to attend school, keep a job, and/or maintain important relationships. Many people with OCD have thoughts of killing themselves, and about 1% complete suicide.

In terms of the prognosis for the specific symptoms, it is rare for any to progress to a physically debilitating level. However, problems like compulsive hand washing can eventually cause complications like the skin becoming dry and even breaking down. Repeated trichotillomania can result in unsightly scabs on the person's scalp.

What is the prognosis for OCD?

While in about 40% of people diagnosed with OCD the symptoms tend to persist indefinitely to some degree, most are only mildly to moderately affected by those symptoms if adequately treated. People who have the symptoms of OCD longer before being diagnosed and treated are both at higher risk of having more severe OCD and of developing other mental health illnesses in the future.

How is OCD prevented?

OCD is best prevented through early recognition and treatment. Specifically, recognizing warning signs that a child may be at risk for developing OCD can be a place to start. Examples of such early warning signs include excessive complaints (hypersensitivity) by the child that certain clothes or food textures are intolerable, as well as a child who engages in rigid patterns of behavior.

Where can I get more information about obsessive compulsive disorder?

Further information about OCD can be gained from the following resources.

Anxiety Disorders Association of America
240-485-1001
http://www.adaa.org

American Psychiatric Association
703-907-7300
http://www.psych.org

Cognitive Behavior Therapy Center for OCD & Anxiety
http://www.cbtmarin.com/treatment.asp

National Institute of Mental Health
866-615-6464
http://www.nimh.nih.gov

Obsessive Compulsive Foundation
http://www.ocfoundation.org/
PO Box 961029
Boston, Mass. 02196
617-973-5801

OCD Recovery Centers of America
http://www.ocdrecoverycenters.com/

OCDResource.com
http://www.ocdresource.com/

OCD Online
http://www.ocdonline.com/

Tourette Syndrome Association
http://www.tsa-usa.org/

Trichotillomania Learning Center
http://www.trich.org/

REFERENCES:

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic Criteria from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Treatment Revision 2000.

American Psychiatric Association. Treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Practice Guidelines 2007 July.

Amiaz, R., L. Fostick, A. Gershon, and J. Zohar. "Naltrexone Augmentation in OCD: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Cross-over Study." European Neuropsychopharmacology 18.6 June 2008: 455-461.

Awareness Foundation for OCD and Related Disorders. Mental health and OCD resources. 2007.

Bejerot, S., L. Ekselius, and L. von Knorring. "Comorbidity Between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Personality Disorders." Acta Psychiatry Scandinavia 97.6 (1998): 398-402.

Caspi, A., T. Vishne, Y. Sasson, et al. "Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Case Control Study." Israeli Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences 45.3 (2008): 177-182.

Chabane, N., R. Delorme, B. Millet, M.C. Mouren, M. Lebover, and D. Pauls. "Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup With a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?" Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46.8 (2004): 881-887.

Cordioli, A.V., E. Heldt, D.B. Bochi, R. Maris, M.B. de Sousa, J.F. Tonello, et al. "Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial." Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 72 (2003): 211-216.

Dar, R., D.T. Kahn, and R. Carmeli. "The relationship between sensory processing, childhood rituals and obsessive-compulsive symptoms." Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 43.1 Sept. 2011: 679-684.

Foa, E.B., M.R. Liebowitz, M.J. Kozak, et al. "Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Exposure and Ritual Prevention, Clomipramine and Their Combination in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." Focus 5 Summer 2007: 368-380.

Geller, D.A., J. Biederman, S.E. Stewart, et al. "Which SSRI? A Meta-Analysis of Pharmacotherapy Trials in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." American Journal of Psychiatry 160 (2003): 1919-1928.

Goodman, W.K., K.D. Footec, B.D. Greenberg, et al. "Deep Brain Stimulation for Intractable Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Pilot Study Using a Blinded, Staggered-Onset Design." Biological Psychiatry 67.6 Mar. 2010: 535-542.

Heyman, I., D. Mataix-Cols, and N.A. Fineber. "Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." British Medical Journal 333 Aug. 2006: 424-429.

Horwath, E., and M. Weissman. "The Epidemiology and Cross-National Presentation of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." Psychiatric Clinics of North America 23.3 (2003): 493-507.

Hu, X.Z., R.H. Lipsky, G. Zhu, et al. "Serotonin Transporter Promoter Gain-of-Function Genotypes Are Linked to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." American Journal of Human Genetics 78.5 May 2006: 815-826.

Journal of the American Medical Association. Obsessive compulsive disorder. 10/27/04; 292(16).

Kobak, K.A., J.H. Greist, J.W. Jefferson, et al. "Behavioral Versus Pharmacological Treatments of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder." Focus 2 (2004): 462-474.

Micali, N., I. Heyman, M. Perez, et al. "Long-term outcomes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: follow-up of 142 children and adolescents." British Journal of Psychiatry 197 (2010): 128-134.

National Institute of Mental Health. The numbers count: Mental disorders in America. June 26, 2008.

National Institute of Mental Health. Psychotherapy, medications best for youth with obsessive compulsive disorder. Press Release. Oct. 28, 2004.

Pallanti, S. "Transcultural Observations of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." American Journal of Psychiatry 165 (2008): 169-170.

Saxena, S. "Is Compulsive Hoarding a Genetically and Neurobiologically Discrete Syndrome? Implications for Diagnostic Classification." American Journal of Psychiatry 164 Mar. 2007: 380-384.

Sessa, B. "Can Psychedelics Have a Role in Psychiatry Once Again?" The British Journal of Psychiatry 186 (2005): 457-458.

Simon, N.M., M.W. Otto, S.R. Wisniewski, M. Fossey, M., et al. "Anxiety Disorder Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder Patients: Data From the First 500 Participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD)." American Journal of Psychiatry 161 Dec. 2004: 2222-2229.

Storch, E.A., L.J. Merlo, M.L. Keeley, et al. "Somatic symptoms in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: associations with clinical characteristics and cognitive-behavioral therapy response." Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 36 (2008): 283-297.


Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 10/3/2012

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