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Administration of acetaminophen in doses higher than recommended may result in hepatic injury, including the risk of liver failure and death [see OVERDOSE]. Do not exceed the maximum recommended daily dose of acetaminophen [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. The maximum recommended daily dose of acetaminophen includes all routes of acetaminophen administration and all acetaminophen-containing products administered, including combination products.
Use caution when administering acetaminophen in patients with the following conditions: hepatic impairment or active hepatic disease, alcoholism, chronic malnutrition, severe hypovolemia (e.g., due to dehydration or blood loss), or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤ 30 mL/min) [see Use In Specific Populations ].
Serious Skin Reactions
Rarely, acetaminophen may cause serious skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. Patients should be informed about the signs of serious skin reactions, and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
Risk Of Medication Errors
Take care when prescribing, preparing, and administering OFIRMEV (acetaminophen) Injection in order to avoid dosing errors which could result in accidental overdose and death. In particular, be careful to ensure that:
- the dose in milligrams (mg) and milliliters (mL) is not confused;
- the dosing is based on weight for patients under 50 kg;
- infusion pumps are properly programmed; and
- the total daily dose of acetaminophen from all sources does not exceed maximum daily limits [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Allergy And Hypersensitivity
There have been post-marketing reports of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis associated with the use of acetaminophen. Clinical signs included swelling of the face, mouth, and throat, respiratory distress, urticaria, rash, and pruritus. There were infrequent reports of life-threatening anaphylaxis requiring emergent medical attention. Discontinue OFIRMEV immediately if symptoms associated with allergy or hypersensitivity occur. Do not use OFIRMEV in patients with acetaminophen allergy.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Long-term studies in mice and rats have been completed by the National Toxicology Program to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of acetaminophen. In 2-year feeding studies, F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were fed a diet containing acetaminophen up to 6000 ppm. Female rats demonstrated equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity based on increased incidences of mononuclear cell leukemia at 0.8 times the maximum human daily dose (MHDD) of 4 grams/day, based on a body surface area comparison. In contrast, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity in male rats (0.7 times) or mice (1.2-1.4 times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison).
Acetaminophen was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). In contrast, acetaminophen tested positive in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using human lymphocytes. In the published literature, acetaminophen has been reported to be clastogenic when administered a dose of 1500 mg/kg/day to the rat model (3.6-times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison). In contrast, no clastogenicity was noted at a dose of 750 mg/kg/day (1.8-times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison), suggesting a threshold effect.
Impairment Of Fertility
In studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program, fertility assessments have been completed in Swiss mice via a continuous breeding study. There were no effects on fertility parameters in mice consuming up to 1.7 times the MHDD of acetaminophen, based on a body surface area comparison. Although there was no effect on sperm motility or sperm density in the epididymis, there was a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm in mice consuming 1.7 times the MHDD (based on a body surface area comparison) and there was a reduction in the number of mating pairs producing a fifth litter at this dose, suggesting the potential for cumulative toxicity with chronic administration of acetaminophen near the upper limit of daily dosing.
Published studies in rodents report that oral acetaminophen treatment of male animals at doses that are 1.2 times the MHDD and greater (based on a body surface area comparison) result in decreased testicular weights, reduced spermatogenesis, reduced fertility, and reduced implantation sites in females given the same doses. These effects appear to increase with the duration of treatment.
In a published mouse study, oral administration of 50 mg/kg acetaminophen to pregnant mice from Gestation Day 7 to delivery (0.06 times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison) reduced the number of primordial follicles in female offspring and reduced the percentage of full term pregnancies and number of pups born to these females exposed to acetaminophen in utero.
In a published study, oral administration of 350 mg/kg acetaminophen to pregnant rats (0.85 times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison) from Gestation Day 13 to 21 (dams) reduced the number of germ cells in the fetal ovary, decreased ovary weight, and reduced the number of pups per litter in F1 females as well as reduced ovary weights in F2females.
Use In Specific Populations
Published epidemiological studies with oral acetaminophen use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with acetaminophen use and birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes [see Data]. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with IV acetaminophen. Reproductive and developmental studies in rats and mice from the published literature identified adverse events at clinically relevant doses with acetaminophen. Treatment of pregnant rats with doses of acetaminophen approximately equal to the maximum human daily dose (MHDD) showed evidence of fetotoxicity and increases in bone variations in the fetuses. In another study, necrosis was observed in the liver and kidney of both pregnant rats and fetuses at doses approximately equal to the MHDD. In mice and rats treated with acetaminophen at doses within the clinical dosing range, cumulative adverse effects on reproductive capacity were reported. In mice, a reduction in number of litters of the parental mating pair was observed as well as retarded growth, abnormal sperm in their offspring and reduced birth weight in the next generation. In rats, female fertility was decreased following in utero exposure to acetaminophen [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriages for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
The results from a large population-based prospective cohort, including data from 26,424 women with live born singletons who were exposed to oral acetaminophen during the first trimester, indicate no increased risk for congenital malformations, compared to a control group of unexposed children. The rate of congenital malformations (4.3%) was similar to the rate in the general population. A population-based, case-control study from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study showed that 11,610 children with prenatal exposure to acetaminophen during the first trimester had no increased risk of major birth defects compared to 4,500 children in the control group. Other epidemiological data showed similar results. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any risk because of methodological limitations, including recall bias.
Studies in pregnant rats that received oral acetaminophen during organogenesis at doses up to 0.85 times the maximum human daily dose (MHDD = 4 grams/day, based on a body surface area comparison) showed evidence of fetotoxicity (reduced fetal weight and length) and a dose-related increase in bone variations (reduced ossification and rudimentary rib changes). Offspring had no evidence of external, visceral, or skeletal malformations. When pregnant rats received oral acetaminophen throughout gestation at doses of 1.2-times the MHDD (based on a body surface area comparison), areas of necrosis occurred in both the liver and kidney of pregnant rats and fetuses. These effects did not occur in animals that received oral acetaminophen at doses 0.3-times the MHDD, based on a body surface area comparison.
In a continuous breeding study, pregnant mice received 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0% acetaminophen via the diet (357, 715, or 1430 mg/kg/day). These doses are approximately 0.43, 0.87, and 1.7 times the MHDD, respectively, based on a body surface area comparison.
There is no information regarding the presence of OFIRMEV in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. However, limited published studies report that acetaminophen passes rapidly into human milk with similar levels in the milk and plasma. Average and maximum neonatal doses of 1% and 2%, respectively, of the weight-adjusted maternal dose are reported after a single oral administration of 1 gram APAP. There is one well-documented report of a rash in a breast-fed infant that resolved when the mother stopped acetaminophen use and recurred when she resumed acetaminophen use. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for OFIRMEV and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from OFIRMEV or from the underlying maternal condition.
Females And Males Of Reproductive Potential
Based on animal data use of acetaminophen may cause reduced fertility in males and females of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible. Published animal studies reported that oral acetaminophen treatment of male animals at doses that are 1.2 times the MHDD and greater (based on a body surface area comparison) result in decreased testicular weights, reduced spermatogenesis, and reduced fertility. In female animals given the same doses, reduced implantation sites were reported. Additional published animal studies indicate that acetaminophen exposure in utero adversely impacts reproductive capacity of both male and female offspring at clinically relevant exposures [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Treatment Of Acute Pain
The safety and effectiveness of OFIRMEV for the treatment of acute pain in pediatric patients ages 2 years and older is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of OFIRMEV in adults and safety and pharmacokinetic data from adult and 483 pediatric patients across all age groups [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Pharmacokinetics].
The effectiveness of OFIRMEV for the treatment of acute pain in pediatric patients younger than 2 years of age has not been established.
In patients younger than 2 years, efficacy was not demonstrated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 198 pediatric patients younger than 2 years. Pediatric patients less than 2 years of age, including neonates from 28 to 40 weeks gestational age at birth, were randomized to receive opioid plus acetaminophen or opioid plus placebo. No difference in analgesic effect of intravenous acetaminophen, measured by assessment of reduced need for additional opioid treatment for pain control, was observed.
Treatment Of Fever
The safety and effectiveness of OFIRMEV for the treatment of fever in pediatric patients, including premature neonates born at ≥ 32 weeks gestational age is supported by adequate and well-controlled studies of OFIRMEV in adults, clinical studies in 244 pediatric patients 2 years and older, and safety and pharmacokinetic data from 239 patients younger than 2 years including neonates ≥ 32 weeks gestational age
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of OFIRMEV, 15% were age 65 and over, while 5% were age 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Patients With Hepatic Impairment
Acetaminophen is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment or severe active liver disease and should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment or active liver disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. A reduced total daily dose of acetaminophen may be warranted.
Patients With Renal Impairment
In cases of severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤ 30 mL/min), longer dosing intervals and a reduced total daily dose of acetaminophen may be warranted.This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 2/13/2017
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