"For adults and children who undergo cataract surgery, implantation of an artificial lens is the standard of care. But a clinical trial suggests that for most infants, surgery followed by the use of contact lenses for several years â€” and an eventu"...
Mechanism Of Action
Phenylephrine is an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist and, in the eye, acts as a mydriatic agent by contracting the radial muscle of the iris. Ketorolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory that inhibits both cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2), resulting in a decrease in tissue concentrations of prostaglandins to reduce pain due to surgical trauma. Ketorolac, by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis secondary to ocular surgical insult or direct mechanical stimulation of the iris, also prevents surgically induced miosis.
In a pharmacokinetic study evaluating Omidria, systemic exposure to both phenylephrine and ketorolac was low or undetectable.
A single-dose of Omidria as part of the irrigation solution was administered in 14 patients during lens replacement surgery. The volume of irrigation solution used during surgery ranged between 150 mL to 300 mL (median 212.5 mL). Detectable phenylephrine plasma concentrations were observed in one of 14 subjects (range 1.2 to 1.4 ng/mL) during the first two hours after the initiation of Omidria administration. The observed phenylephrine plasma concentrations could not be distinguished from the preoperative administration of phenylephrine 2.5% ophthalmic solution prior to exposure to Omidria.
Ketorolac plasma concentrations were detected in 10 of 14 subjects (range 1.0 to 4.2 ng/mL) during the first 8 hours after the initiation of Omidria administration. The maximum ketorolac concentration was 15 ng/mL at 24 hours after the initiation of Omidria administration, which may have been due to application of postoperative ketorolac ophthalmic solution.
The efficacy and safety of Omidria were evaluated in two Phase 3, randomized, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trials in 808 adult subjects undergoing cataract surgery or intraocular lens replacement.
Subjects were randomized to either Omidria or placebo. Subjects were treated with preoperative topical mydriatic and anesthetic agents. Pupil diameter was measured throughout the surgical procedure. Postoperative pain was evaluated by self-administered 0-100 mm visual analog scales (VAS).
Mydriasis was maintained in the Omidria-treated groups while the placebo-treated groups experienced progressive constriction.
Figure 3: Intraoperative Pupil Diameter (mm)
At the end of cortical clean-up, 23% of placebo-treated subjects and 4% of Omidria-treated subjects had a pupil diameter less than 6 mm (p < 0.01).
Pain during the initial 10-12 hours postoperatively was statistically significantly less in the Omidria-treated groups than in the placebo-treated groups.
Figure 4: Postoperative Mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS)
Scores for Pain
During the 10-12 hours postoperatively, 26% of Omidria-treated subjects reported no pain (VAS = 0 at all timepoints) while 17% of placebo-treated subjects reported no pain (p < 0.01).
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/16/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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