"Feb. 25, 2013 (San Antonio, Texas) -- The asthma drug Xolair appears to be a safe and effective treatment for chronic hives, a new study shows.
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Local Nasal Effects
In clinical studies with OMNARIS Nasal Spray, the development of localized infections of the nose and pharynx with Candida albicans has occurred. When such an infection develops, it may require treatment with appropriate local therapy and discontinuation of OMNARIS Nasal Spray. Therefore, patients using OMNARIS Nasal Spray over several months or longer should be examined periodically for evidence of Candida infection or other signs of adverse effects on the nasal mucosa.
Nasal Septal Perforation
Instances of nasal septal perforation have been reported in patients following the intranasal application of corticosteroids. No cases of nasal septal perforation were identified in clinical studies with OMNARIS Nasal Spray. Avoid spraying OMNARIS Nasal Spray directly onto the nasal septum.
Impaired Wound Healing
Because of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing, patients who have experienced recent nasal septal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use a nasal corticosteroid until healing has occurred.
Glaucoma and Cataracts
Nasal and inhaled corticosteroids may result in the development of glaucoma and/or cataracts. Therefore, close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts.
The risk of glaucoma was evaluated by assessments of intraocular pressure in 3 studies including 943 patients. Of these, 390 adolescents or adults were treated for up to 52 weeks and 186 children ages 2 to 11 received treatment with OMNARIS Nasal Spray 200 mcg daily for up to 12 weeks. In these studies, no significant differences in intraocular pressure changes were observed between OMNARIS Nasal Spray 200 mcg and placebotreated patients. Additionally, no significant differences between OMNARIS Nasal Spray 200 mcg and placebo-treated patients were noted during the 52-week study of adults and adolescent patients in whom thorough ophthalmologic assessments were performed, including evaluation of cataract formation using slit lamp examinations.
Patients who are using drugs that suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If a patient is exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If a patient is exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
Corticosteroids should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculosis infections of the respiratory tract; or in patients with untreated local or systemic fungal or bacterial infections; systemic viral or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex because of the potential for worsening of these infections.
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Effect
Hypercorticism and Adrenal Suppression
When intranasal corticosteroids are used at higher than recommended dosages or in susceptible individuals at recommended dosages, systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression may appear. If such changes occur, the dosage of OMNARIS Nasal Spray should be discontinued slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for discontinuing oral steroid therapy.
The replacement of a systemic corticosteroid with a topical corticosteroid can be accompanied by signs of adrenal insufficiency. In addition, some patients may experience symptoms of corticosteroid withdrawal, e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression. Patients previously treated for prolonged periods with systemic corticosteroids and transferred to topical corticosteroids should be carefully monitored for acute adrenal insufficiency in response to stress. In those patients who have asthma or other clinical conditions requiring long-term systemic corticosteroid treatment, rapid decreases in systemic corticosteroid dosages may cause a severe exacerbation of their symptoms.
Effect on Growth
Corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Monitor the growth routinely (e.g., via stadiometry) in pediatric patients receiving OMNARIS Nasal Spray.
Patient Counseling Information
See FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION and Instructions for Use).
Local Nasal Effects
Patients should be informed that treatment with OMNARIS Nasal Spray may lead to adverse reactions, which include epistaxis and nasal ulceration. Candida infection may also occur with treatment with OMNARIS Nasal Spray. In addition, nasal corticosteroids are associated with nasal septal perforation and impaired wound healing. Avoid spraying OMNARIS Nasal Spray directly onto the nasal septum. Patients who have experienced recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should not use OMNARIS Nasal Spray until healing has occurred [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Patients should be informed that glaucoma and cataracts are associated with nasal and inhaled corticosteroid use. The patient should inform his/her health care provider if a change in vision is noted while using OMNARIS Nasal Spray [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients who are on immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles, and if exposed, to consult their physician without delay. Patients should be informed of potential worsening of existing tuberculosis, fungal, bacterial, viral or parasitic infections, or ocular herpes simplex [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Patients should use OMNARIS Nasal Spray at regular intervals since its effectiveness depends on its regular use. In clinical trials, the onset of effect was seen within 24 to 48 hours with further symptomatic improvement observed over 1 to 2 weeks in seasonal allergic rhinitis and 5 weeks in perennial allergic rhinitis. Initial assessment of response should be made during this time frame and periodically until the patient's symptoms are stabilized. The patient should take the medication as directed and should not exceed the prescribed dosage. The patient should contact the physician if symptoms do not improve by a reasonable time or if the condition worsens.
Keep Spray Out of Eyes
Patients should be informed to avoid spraying OMNARIS Nasal Spray in their eyes.
Storage and Handling
It is important that the bottle is gently shaken prior to use to ensure that a consistent amount is dispensed per actuation. The bottle should be discarded after 120 actuations following initial priming or after 4 months after the bottle is removed from the foil pouch, whichever occurs first.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Ciclesonide demonstrated no carcinogenic potential in a study of oral doses up to 900 mcg/kg (approximately 20 and 10 times the maximum human daily intranasal dose in adults and adolescents ≥ 12 years of age and children, 6 to 11 years of age, respectively, based on mcg/m²) in mice for 104 weeks and in a study of inhalation doses up to 193 mcg/kg (approximately 8 and 5 times the maximum human daily intranasal dose in adults and adolescents ≥ 12 years of age and children, 6 to 11 years of age, respectively, based on mcg/m²) in rats for 104 weeks. Ciclesonide was not mutagenic in an Ames test or in a forward mutation assay and was not clastogenic in a human lymphocyte assay or in an in vitro micronucleus test. However, ciclesonide was clastogenic in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test. The concurrent reference corticosteroid (dexamethasone) in this study showed similar findings. No evidence of impairment of fertility was observed in a reproductive study conducted in male and female rats both dosed orally up to 900 mcg/kg/day (approximately 35 times the maximum human daily intranasal dose in adults based on mcg/m²).
Use In Specific Populations
Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. OMNARIS Nasal Spray should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Experience with oral corticosteroids since their introduction in pharmacologic, as opposed to physiologic, doses suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans. In addition, because there is a natural increase in corticosteroid production during pregnancy, most women will require a lower exogenous corticosteroid dose and many will not need corticosteroid treatment during pregnancy.
Oral administration of ciclesonide in rats at approximately 35 times the maximum human daily intranasal dose in adults based on mcg/m² produced no teratogenicity or other fetal effects. However, subcutaneous administration of ciclesonide in rabbits at less than the maximum human daily intranasal dose in adults based on mcg/m² produced fetal toxicity. This included fetal loss, reduced fetal weight, cleft palate, skeletal abnormalities including incomplete ossifications, and skin effects [see Nonclinical Toxicology].
Hypoadrenalism may occur in infants born of mothers receiving corticosteroids during pregnancy. Such infants should be carefully monitored.
It is not known if ciclesonide is excreted in human milk. However, other corticosteroids are excreted in human milk. In a study with lactating rats, minimal but detectable levels of ciclesonide were recovered in milk. Caution should be used when OMNARIS Nasal Spray is administered to nursing women.
The safety and effectiveness for seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in children 12 years of age and older have been established. The efficacy of OMNARIS Nasal Spray in patients 6 to 11 years of age for treatment of the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis was demonstrated in one study in patients 6 to 11 years of age with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The efficacy of OMNARIS Nasal Spray for the treatment of the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in patients 5 years of age and younger has not been established. The efficacy of OMNARIS Nasal Spray for the treatment of the symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis in patients 11 years of age and younger has not been established [see Clinical Studies]. The safety of OMNARIS Nasal Spray in children 2 to 11 years of age was evaluated in 4 controlled clinical studies of 2 to 12 weeks duration [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Clinical Studies, and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Controlled clinical studies have shown that intranasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. This effect has been observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA-axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with intranasal corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for “catch-up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of pediatric patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids, including OMNARIS Nasal Spray, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). A 52-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallelgroup study was conducted to assess the effect of orally inhaled ciclesonide on growth rate in 609 pediatric patients with mild persistent asthma, aged 5 to 8.5 years. Treatment groups included orally inhaled ciclesonide 40 mcg or 160 mcg or placebo given once daily. Growth was measured by stadiometer height during the baseline, treatment and follow-up periods. The primary comparison was the difference in growth rates between ciclesonide 40 and 160 mcg and placebo groups. Conclusions cannot be drawn from this study because compliance could not be assured. Ciclesonide blood levels were also not measured during the one-year treatment period. There was no difference in efficacy measures between the placebo and the orally inhaled ciclesonide groups.
The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against clinical benefits obtained and the availability of safe and effective noncorticosteroid treatment alternatives. To minimize the systemic effects of intranasal corticosteroids, each patient should be titrated to the lowest dose that effectively controls his/her symptoms.
Clinical studies of OMNARIS Nasal Spray did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/4/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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