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Omontys

"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is alerting health care providers and patients of a voluntary nationwide recall of all lots of Omontys Injection by Affymax, Inc., of Palo Alto, Calif., and Takeda Pharmaceuticals Company Limited, of Deerfiel"...

Omontys

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Peginesatide binds to and activates the human erythropoietin receptor and stimulates erythropoiesis in human red cell precursors in vitro.

Pharmacodynamics

Peginesatide increases the reticulocyte count, followed by increases in hemoglobin. The rate of hemoglobin increase varies among patients and is dependent upon the dose of peginesatide administered.

Effect on Cardiac Repolarization

The effect of OMONTYS (0.1 mg/kg intravenously) on QTc interval was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, three-period crossover thorough QT study in 65 healthy subjects. A dose of 0.1 mg/kg administered intravenously did not delay cardiac repolarization compared to placebo. The dose of 0.1 mg/kg is adequate to represent the median dose (0.07 mg/kg) in the phase 3 trials, however is not sufficient to represent doses higher than 0.1 mg/kg in the intended patients.

Pharmacokinetics

Following single intravenous and subcutaneous injections at doses ranging from 0.03 to 0.1 mg/kg to dialysis patients, maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) increase with dose. Following subcutaneous administration, the maximum concentrations of peginesatide are reached in approximately 48 hours. The bioavailability of peginesatide following subcutaneous administration is approximately 46%.

No mass balance study has been conducted in humans. Preclinical radiolabeled peginesatide study indicated that peginesatide is not metabolized and that urinary excretion was the predominant route of elimination following either intravenous or subcutaneous dosing.

The mean half-life is 25.0 ± 7.6 hours following intravenous administration and 53.0 ± 17.7 hours following subcutaneous administration in healthy subjects. The mean half-life in dialysis patients is 47.9 ± 16.5 hours following intravenous administration. Mean systemic clearance is 0.5 ± 0.2 mL/hr·kg and mean volume of distribution is 34.9 ± 13.8 mL/kg following intravenous administration in dialysis patients. No accumulation is observed following administration every 4 weeks following intravenous or subcutaneous administration. The pharmacokinetics of peginesatide in patients with CKD on dialysis are not altered by age, gender or race based on population pharmacokinetic analyses.

Clinical Studies

The efficacy and safety of OMONTYS in patients with CKD on dialysis were demonstrated in two randomized, active-controlled, open-label, multi-center clinical studies that evaluated OMONTYS in the maintenance of hemoglobin concentrations in patients who were being treated with another ESA (epoetin alfa or epoetin beta) at the time of study entry. The primary efficacy endpoint for each study was the change in hemoglobin from Baseline to the Evaluation Period (Weeks 29 to 36) using a non-inferiority comparison with epoetin. In Study 1, patients received epoetin via the intravenous route of administration and continued to use this route after randomization to either OMONTYS or epoetin. The average patient exposure year [PEY] per patient was 1.14 years for OMONTYS and the average PEY per patient was 1.25 years for epoetin. In Study 2, the route of administration previously used for epoetin (intravenous or subcutaneous) was used. The average PEY per patient was 1.17 years for OMONTYS and the average PEY per patient was 1.16 years for epoetin. The median dose of OMONTYS was 0.07 mg/kg administered once monthly and the median dose of epoetin was 113 units/kg administered weekly (in 1 to 3 doses).

Patients were randomized (2 to 1) to receive OMONTYS once monthly, or to continue on their current ESA treatment 1 to 3 times per week. The OMONTYS starting dose was based on the patient's total weekly ESA dose during the last week of the screening period. As shown in Table 4, treatment with OMONTYS once monthly and treatment with epoetin 1-3 times per week maintained hemoglobin concentrations within the study pre-specified hemoglobin range (10 to 12 g/dL). In both studies, the proportion of patients receiving transfusions was similar in each treatment group.

Table 4: Clinical Studies in Dialysis Patients

Group (N) Mean baseline Hemoglobin Change from Baseline to Weeks 29-36 Between group difference, Least Squares Mean g/dL (95% CI)
Study 1
OMONTYS (524) 11.3 g/dL -0.24 g/dL -0.15 g/dL
(-0.30, -0.01)
Epoetin (269) 11.3 g/dL -0.09 g/dL
Study 2
OMONTYS (542) 11.2 g/dL -0.07 g/dL 0.10 g/dL
(-0.05, 0.26)
Epoetin (273) 11.2 g/dL -0.17 g/dL

Studies 1 and 2 had a pre-specified, prospective, pooled analysis of a composite cardiovascular safety endpoint consisting of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or serious adverse events of congestive heart failure, unstable angina or arrhythmia. In patients receiving OMONTYS, 22.8% experienced one of these events compared to 24.4% receiving epoetin (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.77, 1.17).

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/19/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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