February 24, 2017
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Opana

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Opana




Side Effects
Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS

The following serious adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections:

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

A total of 591 patients were treated with OPANA in controlled clinical trials. The clinical trials consisted of patients with acute post-operative pain (n=557) and cancer pain (n=34) trials.

The following table lists adverse reactions that were reported in at least 2% of patients receiving OPANA in placebo-controlled trials (acute post-operative pain (N=557)).

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported in Placebo-Controlled Trials

MedDRA Preferred Term OPANA
(N=557)
Placebo
(N=270)
Nausea 19% 12%
Pyrexia 14% 8%
Somnolence 9% 2%
Vomiting 9% 7%
Pruritus 8% 4%
Headache 7% 4%
Dizziness (Excluding Vertigo) 7% 2%
Constipation 4% 1%
Confusion 3% < 1%

The common ( ≥ 1% - < 10%) adverse drug reactions reported at least once by patients treated with OPANA in the clinical trials organized by MedDRA's (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) System Organ Class were and not represented in Table 1:

Cardiac disorders: tachycardia

Gastrointestinal disorders: dry mouth, abdominal distention, and flatulence

General disorders and administration site conditions: sweating increased

Nervous system disorders: anxiety and sedation

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: hypoxia

Vascular disorders: hypotension

Other less common adverse reactions known with opioid treatment that were seen < 1% in the OPANA trials includes the following:

Abdominal pain, ileus, diarrhea, agitation, disorientation, restlessness, feeling jittery, hypersensitivity, allergic reactions, bradycardia, central nervous system depression, depressed level of consciousness, lethargy, mental impairment, mental status changes, fatigue, depression, clamminess, flushing, hot flashes, dehydration, dermatitis, dyspepsia, dysphoria, edema, euphoric mood, hallucination, hypertension, insomnia, miosis, nervousness, palpitation, postural hypotension, syncope, dyspnea, respiratory depression, respiratory distress, respiratory rate decreased, oxygen saturation decreased, difficult micturition, urinary retention, urticaria, vision blurred, visual disturbances, weakness, appetite decreased, and weight decreased.

Post-marketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of opioids. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Nervous system disorder: amnesia, convulsion, memory impairment

Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.

Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.

Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in OPANA

Immune System Disorders: Angioedema, and other hypersensitivity reactions:

Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].

Read the Opana (oxymorphone hydrochloride) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Table 2 includes clinically significant drug interactions with OPANA.

Table 2: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Opana

Alcohol
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of alcohol with OPANA can result in an increase of oxymorphone plasma levels and potentially fatal overdose of oxymorphone.
Intervention: Instruct patients not to consume alcoholic beverages or use prescription or nonprescription products containing alcohol while on OPANA therapy [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants
Clinical Impact: Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines and other CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.
Intervention: Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation [ WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Examples: Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol.
Serotonergic Drugs
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.
Intervention: If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue OPANA if serotonin syndrome is suspected.
Examples: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
Clinical Impact: MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.
Intervention: The use of OPANA is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.
Examples: phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid
Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics
Clinical Impact: May reduce the analgesic effect of OPANA and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
Intervention: Avoid concomitant use.
Examples: butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine,
Muscle Relaxants
Clinical Impact: Oxymorphone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of OPANA and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.
Diuretics
Clinical Impact: Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when OPANA is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.
Anticholinergic Drugs
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when OPANA is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.
Cimetidine
Clinical Impact: Cimetidine can potentiate opioid-induced respiratory depression.
Intervention: Monitor patients for respiratory depression when OPANA and cimetidine are used concurrently.
Anticholinergic Drugs
Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.
Intervention: Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when Opana is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.

Drug Abuse And Dependence

Controlled Substance

OPANA contains oxymorphone, a Schedule II controlled substance

Abuse

OPANA contains oxymorphone, a substance with a high potential for abuse similar to other opioids including fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone and tapentadol. OPANA can be abused and is subject to misuse, addiction, and criminal diversion [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use.

Prescription drug abuse is the intentional non-therapeutic use of a prescription drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological or physiological effects.

Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and includes: a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal.

“Drug-seeking” behavior is very common in persons with substance use disorders. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing, or referral, repeated “loss” of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions, and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating healthcare provider(s). “Doctor shopping” (visiting multiple prescribers to obtain additional prescriptions) is common among drug abusers and people suffering from untreated addiction. Preoccupation with achieving adequate pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with poor pain control.

Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Health care providers should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of true addiction.

OPANA, like other opioids, can be diverted for non-medical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised.

Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.

Risks Specific To Abuse Of OPANA

OPANA is for oral use only. Abuse of OPANA poses a risk of overdose and death. This risk is increased with concurrent abuse of OPANA with alcohol and other central nervous system depressants.

Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.

Dependence

Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during chronic opioid therapy. Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs, and may develop at different rates for different effects.

Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dosage reduction of a drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity (e.g., naloxone, nalmefene), mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (e.g., pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), or partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued opioid usage.

OPANA should not be abruptly discontinued in a physically-dependent patient [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. If OPANA is abruptly discontinued in a physically-dependent patient, a withdrawal syndrome may occur. Some or all of the following can characterize this syndrome: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate.

Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal signs [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Use in Specific Populations].

Read the Opana Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Last reviewed on RxList: 1/3/2017

Side Effects
Interactions

Opana - User Reviews

Opana User Reviews

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Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

 

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.


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