"Types (classes) of pain medication
Pain medications are drugs used to relieve discomfort associated with disease, injury, or surgery. Because the pain process is complex, there are many types of pain drugs that provide relief by acting "...
Mechanism Of Action
Oxymorphone, an opioid agonist, is relatively selective for the mu receptor, although it can interact with other opioid receptors at higher doses.
The precise mechanism of analgesia, the principal therapeutic action of oxymorphone, is unknown. Specific central nervous system (CNS) opiate receptors and endogenous compounds with morphine-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are likely to play a role in the expression and perception of analgesic effects. In addition, opioid receptors have also been identified within the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The role that these receptors play in these drugs' analgesic effects is unknown.
The minimum effective plasma concentration of oxymorphone for analgesia varies widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with agonist opioids. As a result, individually titrate patients to achieve a balance between therapeutic and adverse effects. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of oxymorphone for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, progression of disease, development of a new pain syndrome and/or potential development of analgesic tolerance.
Concentration-Adverse Experience Relationships
There is a general relationship between increasing opioid plasma concentration and increasing frequency of adverse experiences such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression.
CNS Depressant/Alcohol Interaction
Additive pharmacodynamic effects may be expected when OPANA ER is used in conjunction with alcohol, other opioids, or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression.
Effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS)
The principal therapeutic action of oxymorphone is analgesia. Oxymorphone causes respiratory depression, in part by a direct effect on the brainstem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and electrical stimulation. Oxymorphone depresses the cough reflex by direct effect on the cough center in the medulla.
Oxymorphone causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomonic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origin may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations [see OVERDOSAGE]. Other therapeutic effects of oxymorphone include anxiolysis, euphoria, and feeling of relaxation, drowsiness and changes in mood.
Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and on Other Smooth Muscle
Gastric, biliary and pancreatic secretions are decreased by oxymorphone. Oxymorphone causes a reduction in motility and is associated with an increase in tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone is increased to the point of spasm. The end result is constipation. Oxymorphone can cause a marked increase in biliary tract pressure as a result of spasm of the sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase. Oxymorphone may also cause spasm of the sphincter of the urinary bladder.
Effects on the Cardiovascular System
Oxymorphone produces peripheral vasodilation which may result in orthostatic hypotension. Release of histamine can occur and may contribute to opioid-induced hypotension. Manifestations of histamine release may include orthostatic hypotension, pruritus, flushing, red eyes, and sweating.
Effects on the Endocrine System
Opioid agonists have been shown to have a variety of effects on the secretion of hormones. Opioids inhibit the secretion of ACTH, cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans. They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon.
Effects on the Immune System
Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system in in vitro and animal models. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
The absolute oral bioavailability of oxymorphone is approximately 10%.
Steady-state levels are achieved after three days of multiple dose administration. Under both single-dose and steady-state conditions, dose proportionality has been established for the 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg doses of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, for both peak plasma levels (Cmax) and extent of absorption (AUC) (see Table 4).
Table 4: Mean (±SD) Oxymorphone Hydrochloride
Extended-Release Tablets Pharmacokinetic Parameters
|Regimen||Dosage||Cmax (ng/mL)||AUC (ng·hr/mL)||T ½ (hr)|
|Single Dose||5 mg||0.27 ± 0.13||4.54 ± 2.04||11.30 ± 10.81|
|10 mg||0.65 ± 0.29||8.94 ± 4.16||9.83 ± 5.68|
|20 mg||1.21 ± 0.77||17.81 ± 7.22||9.89 ± 3.21|
|40 mg||2.59 ± 1.65||37.90 ± 16.20||9.35 ± 2.94|
|Multiple Dosea||5 mg||0.70 ± 0.55||5.60 ± 3.87||NA|
|10 mg||1.24 ± 0.56||9.77 ± 3.52||NA|
|20 mg||2.54 ± 1.35||19.28 ± 8.32||NA|
|40 mg||4.47 ± 1.91||36.98 ± 13.53||NA|
|NA = not applicable
a Results after 5 days of q12h dosing
Two studies examined the effect of food on the bioavailability of single doses of 20 and 40 mg of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in healthy volunteers. In both studies, after the administration of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, the Cmax was increased by approximately 50% in fed subjects compared to fasted subjects. A similar increase in Cmax was also observed with oxymorphone solution.
The AUC was unchanged in one study and increased by approximately 18% in the other study in fed subjects following the administration of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Examination of the AUC suggests that most of the difference between fed and fasting conditions occurs in the first four hours after dose administration. After oral dosing with a single dose of 40 mg, a peak oxymorphone plasma level of 2.8 ng/ml is achieved at 1hour in fasted subjects and a peak of 4.25 ng/ml is achieved at 2 hours in fed subjects and that beyond the 12 hour time point, there is very little difference in the curves. As a result, OPANA ER should be dosed at least one hour prior to or two hours after eating [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION].
Formal studies on the distribution of oxymorphone in various tissues have not been conducted. Oxymorphone is not extensively bound to human plasma proteins; binding is in the range of 10% to 12%.
Oxymorphone is highly metabolized, principally in the liver, and undergoes reduction or conjugation with glucuronic acid to form both active and inactive metabolites. The two major metabolites of oxymorphone are oxymorphone-3-glucuronide and 6-OHoxymorphone. The mean plasma AUC for oxymorphone-3-glucuronide is approximately 90-fold higher than the parent compound. The pharmacologic activity of the glucuronide metabolite has not been evaluated. 6-OH-oxymorphone has been shown in animal studies to have analgesic bioactivity. The mean plasma 6-OH-oxymorphone AUC is approximately 70% of the oxymorphone AUC following single oral doses, but is essentially equivalent to the parent compound at steady-state.
Because oxymorphone is extensively metabolized, < 1% of the administered dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. On average, 33% to 38% of the administered dose is excreted in the urine as oxymorphone-3-glucuronide and less than 1% excreted as 6-OHoxymorphone in subjects with normal hepatic and renal function. In animals given radiolabeled oxymorphone, approximately 90% of the administered radioactivity was recovered within 5 days of dosing. The majority of oxymorphone-derived radioactivity was found in the urine and feces.
The steady-state plasma concentrations of oxymorphone, 6-OH-oxymorphone, and oxymorphone-3-glucuronide are approximately 40% higher in elderly subjects ( ≥ 65 years of age) than in young subjects (18 to 40 years of age). On average, age greater than 65 years was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in oxymorphone AUC and a 1.5-fold increase in Cmax. This observation does not appear related to a difference in body weight, metabolism, or excretion of oxymorphone [see Use in Specific Populations].
The effect of gender was evaluated following single-and multiple-doses of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in male and female adult volunteers. There was a consistent tendency for female subjects to have slightly higher AUCss and Cmax values than male subjects; however, gender differences were not observed when AUCss and Cmax were adjusted by body weight.
The bioavailability of orally administered oxymorphone is markedly increased in patients with moderate to severe liver disease. The disposition of oxymorphone was compared in six patients with mild, five patients with moderate, and one patient with severe hepatic impairment and 12 subjects with normal hepatic function. The bioavailability of oxymorphone was increased by 1.6-fold in patients with mild hepatic impairment and by 3.7-fold in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. In one patient with severe hepatic impairment, the bioavailability was increased by 12.2-fold. The half-life of oxymorphone was not significantly affected by hepatic impairment.
Data from a pharmacokinetic study involving 24 patients with renal dysfunction show an increase of 26%, 57%, and 65% in oxymorphone bioavailability in mild (creatinine clearance 51-80 mL/min; n=8), moderate (creatinine clearance 30-50 mL/min; n=8), and severe (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min; n=8) patients, respectively, compared to healthy controls.
Drug Interaction/Alcohol Interaction
An in vivo study of the effect of alcohol (40%, 20%, 4% and 0%) on the bioavailability of a single dose of 40 mg of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in healthy, fasted volunteers demonstrated a highly variable effect on Cmax with concomitant administration of alcohol and oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. The change in Cmax ranged from a decrease of 50% to an increase of 270% across all conditions studied. Following administration of 240 mL of 40% ethanol, the Cmax increased on average by 70% and up to 270% in individual subjects. Following the concomitant administration of 240 mL of 20% ethanol, the Cmax increased on average by 31% and up to 260% in individual subjects. Following the concomitant administration of 240 mL of 4 % ethanol, the Cmax increased 7% on average and by as much as 110% for individual subjects. After oral dosing with a single dose of 40 mg in fasted subjects, the mean peak oxymorphone plasma level is 2.4 ng/mL and the median Tmax is 2 hours. Following coadministration of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and alcohol (240 mL of 40% ethanol) in fasted subjects, the mean peak oxymorphone level is 3.9 ng/mL and the median Tmax is 1.5 hours (range 0.75 – 6 hours). The oxymorphone mean AUC was 13% higher after co-administration of 240 mL of 40% alcohol. The AUC was essentially unaffected in subjects following the coadministration of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and ethanol (240 mL of 20% or 4% ethanol).
In vitro studies have demonstrated that oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets does not release oxymorphone more rapidly in 500 mL of 0.1N HCl solutions containing ethanol (4%, 20%, and 40%),
Instruct patients to avoid use of alcohol when taking OPANA ER.
In vitro studies revealed little to no biotransformation of oxymorphone to 6-OH-oxymorphone by any of the major cytochrome P450 (CYP P450) isoforms at therapeutically relevant oxymorphone plasma concentrations.
No inhibition of any of the major CYP P450 isoforms was observed when oxymorphone was incubated with human liver microsomes at concentrations of ≤ 15.1 μg/mL. An inhibition of CYP3A4 activity occurred at oxymorphone concentrations ≥ 45.3 μg/mL. Therefore, it is not expected that oxymorphone, or its metabolites will act as inhibitors of any of the major CYP P450 enzymes in vivo.
Increases in the activity of the CYP 2C9 and CYP 3A4 isoforms occurred when oxymorphone was incubated with human hepatocytes. However, clinical drug interaction studies with oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets showed no induction of CYP450 3A4 or 2C9 enzyme activity, indicating that no dose adjustment for CYP 3A4-or 2C9-mediated drug-drug interactions is required.
The efficacy and safety of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets have been evaluated in double-blind, controlled clinical trials in opioid-na´ve and opioid-experienced patients with moderate to severe pain including low back pain.
12-Week Study in Opioid-Na´ve Patients with Low Back Pain
Patients with chronic low back pain who were suboptimally responsive to their non-opioid therapy entered a 4-week, open-label dose titration phase. Patients initiated therapy with two days of treatment with oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets 5 mg, every 12 hours. Thereafter, patients were titrated to a stabilized dose, at increments of 5 to 10 mg every 12 hours every 3 to 7 days. Of the patients who were able to stabilize within the Open-Label Titration Period, the mean±SD VAS score at Screening was 69.4±11.8 mm and at Baseline (beginning of Double-Blind Period) were 18.5±11.2 mm and 19.3±11.3 mm for the oxymorphone ER and placebo groups, respectively. Sixty three percent of the patients enrolled were able to titrate to a tolerable dose and were randomized into a 12-week double-blind treatment phase with placebo or their stabilized dose of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. The mean±SD stabilized doses were 39.2±26.4 mg and 40.9±25.3 mg for the oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo groups, respectively; total daily doses ranged from 10 to 140 mg. During the first 4 days of double-blind treatment patients were allowed an unlimited number of OPANA, an immediate-release (IR) formulation of oxymorphone, 5 mg tablets, every 4-6 hours as supplemental analgesia; thereafter the number of OPANA was limited to two tablets per day. This served as a tapering method to minimize opioid withdrawal symptoms in placebo patients. Sixty-eight percent of patients treated with oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets completed the 12-week treatment compared to 47% of patients treated with placebo. Oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets provided superior analgesia compared to placebo. The analgesic effect of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets was maintained throughout the double-blind treatment period in 89% of patients who completed the study. These patients reported a decrease, no change, or a ≤ 10 mm increase in VAS score from Day 7 until the end of the study.
The proportion of patients with various degrees of improvement from screening to study endpoint is shown in Figure 1. The figure is cumulative, so that patients whose change from baseline is, for example, 30%, are also included at every level of improvement below 30%. Patients who did not complete the study were assigned 0% improvement.
Figure 1: Percent Reduction in Average Pain Intensity
from Screening to Final Visit
12-Week Study in Opioid-Experienced Patients with Low Back Pain
Patients on chronic opioid therapy entered a 4-week, open-label titration phase with oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dosed every 12 hours at an approximated equianalgesic dose of their pre-study opioid medication. Of the patients who were able to stabilize within the Open-Label Titration Period, the mean±SD VAS score at Screening was 69.5±17.0 mm and at Baseline (beginning of Double-Blind Period) were 23.9±12.1 mm and 22.2±10.8 mm for the oxymorphone ER and placebo groups, respectively. Stabilized patients entered a 12-week double-blind treatment phase with placebo or their stabilized dose of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. The mean±SD stabilized doses were 80.9±59.3 mg and 93.3±61.3 mg for the oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and placebo groups, respectively; total daily doses ranged from 20-260 mg. During the first 4 days of double-blind treatment, patients were allowed an unlimited number of OPANA 5 mg tablets, every 4-6 hours as supplemental analgesia; thereafter the number of OPANA was limited to two tablets per day. This served as a tapering method to minimize opioid withdrawal symptoms in placebo patients. Fifty seven percent of patients were titrated to a stabilized dose within approximately 4 weeks of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose titration. Seventy percent of patients treated with oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and 26% of patients treated with placebo completed the 12-week treatment. Oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets provided superior analgesia compared to placebo. The analgesic effect of oxymorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets was maintained throughout the double-blind treatment period in 80 % of patients who completed the study. These patients reported a decrease, no change, or a ≤ 10 mm increase in VAS score from Day 7 until the end of the study.
The proportion of patients with various degrees of improvement from screening to study endpoint is shown in Figure 2. The figure is cumulative, so that patients whose change from baseline is, for example, 30%, are also included at every level of improvement below 30%. Patients who did not complete the study were assigned 0% improvement.
Figure 2: Percent Reduction in Average Pain Intensity
from Screening to Final Visit
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/30/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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