"For what conditions are pain medications used?
Virtually any disease as well as most injuries and surgical procedures involve some degree of pain. It's not surprising, then, that pain medications, also known as analgesics, are among t"...
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Details with Side Effects
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling:
- Respiratory Depression [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Chronic Pulmonary Disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Head Injuries and Increased Intracranial Pressure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Interactions with Other CNS Depressants [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Hypotensive Effect [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Gastrointestinal Effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
- Seizures [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The safety of OPANA ER was evaluated in a total of 2011 patients in open-label and controlled clinical trials. The clinical trials enrolled of patients with moderate to severe chronic non-malignant pain, cancer pain, and post surgical pain. The most common serious adverse events reported with administration of OPANA ER were chest pain, pneumonia and vomiting.
Tables 1 and 2 list the most frequently occurring adverse reactions (in at least 5% of patients) from the placebo-controlled trials in patients with low back pain.
Table 1:Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 5%
of Patients During the Open-Label Titration Period and Double-Blind Treatment
Period by Preferred Term —Number (%) of Treated Patients (12-Week Study In
Opioid-Na´ve Patients with Low Back Pain)
|Preferred Term||Open-Label Titration Period||Double-Blind Treatment Period|
(N = 325)
(N = 105)
(N = 100)
Table 2: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Reported in
> ≥ 5% of Patients During the Open-Label Titration Period and
Double-Blind Treatment Period by Preferred Term —Number (%) of Treated Patients
(12-Week Study In Opioid-Experienced Patients with Low Back Pain)
|Preferred Term||Open-Label Titration Period||Double-Blind Treatment Period|
(N = 250)
(N = 70)
(N = 72)
The following table lists adverse reactions that were reported in at least 2% of patients in placebo-controlled trials (N=5).
Table 3: Adverse Reactions Reported in Placebo-Controlled
Clinical Trials with Incidence ≥ 2% in Patients Receiving OPANA ER.
|MedDRA Preferred Term||OPANA ER
|Dizziness (Excl Vertigo)||18%||8%|
|Dry mouth||6%||< 1%|
|Appetite decreased||3%||< 1%|
The common ( ≥ 1% to < 10%) adverse drug reactions reported at least once by patients treated with OPANA ER in the clinical trials organized by MedDRA's (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) System Organ Class and not represented in Table 1 were:
Eye disorders: vision blurred
Gastrointestinal disorders: diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia
Nervous system disorders: insomnia
Psychiatric disorders: anxiety, confusion, disorientation, restlessness, nervousness, depression
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: dyspnea
Vascular disorders: flushing and hypertension
Other less common adverse reactions known with opioid treatment that were seen < 1% in the OPANA ER trials include the following: Bradycardia, palpitation, syncope, tachycardia, postural hypotension, miosis, abdominal distention, ileus, hot flashes, allergic reactions, hypersensitivity, urticaria, oxygen saturation decreased, central nervous system depression, depressed level of consciousness, agitation, dysphoria, euphoric mood, hallucination, mental status changes, difficult micturition, urinary retention, hypoxia, respiratory depression, respiratory distress, clamminess, dermatitis, hypotension.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of OPANA ER. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Read the Opana ER (oxymorphone hydrochloride extended release) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Concomitant use of alcohol with OPANA ER can result in an increase of oxymorphone plasma levels and potentially fatal overdose of oxymorphone. Instruct patients not to consume alcoholic beverages or use prescription or non-prescription products containing alcohol while on OPANA ER therapy [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
Concurrent use of OPANA ER and other CNS depressants including sedatives, hypnotics, tranquilizers, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, other opioids, and alcohol can increase the risk of respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma. Monitor patients receiving CNS depressants and OPANA ER for signs of respiratory depression and hypotension. When such combined therapy is contemplated, reduce the initial dose of one or both agents.
Mixed Agonist/Antagonist Opioid Analgesics
Mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol, or buprenorphine) may reduce the analgesic effect of OPANA ER or may precipitate withdrawal symptoms in these patients. Avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics in patients receiving OPANA ER.
Cimetidine can potentiate opioid-induced respiratory depression. Monitor patients for respiratory depression when OPANA ER and cimetidine are used concurrently.
Anticholinergics or other medications with anticholinergic activity when used concurrently with opioid analgesics may result in increased risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Monitor patients for signs of respiratory and central nervous system depression when OPANA ER is used concurrently with anticholinergic drugs.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
OPANA ER contains oxymorphone, a mu opioid agonist and a Schedule II controlled substance with an abuse liability similar to other opioids including fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone and tapentadol. OPANA ER can be abused and is subject to criminal diversion [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
The high drug content in extended release formulations adds to the risk of adverse outcomes from abuse and misuse.
All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, since use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use.
Drug abuse is the intentional non-therapeutic use of an over-the-counter or prescription drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological or physiological effects. Drug abuse includes, but is not limited to the following examples: the use of a prescription or over-the counter drug to get ”high”, or the use of steroids for performance enhancement and muscle build up.
Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and include: a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance , and sometimes a physical withdrawal.
“Drug seeking” behavior is very common to addicts and drug abusers. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing or referral, repeated claims of loss of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating physician(s). “Doctor shopping” (visiting multiple prescribers) to obtain additional prescriptions is common among drug abusers and people suffering from untreated addiction. Preoccupation with achieving adequate pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with poor pain control.
Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Physicians should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of true addiction.
OPANA ER, like other opioids, can be diverted for non-medical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful recordkeeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests as required by state law, is strongly advised.
Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic reevaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to reduce abuse of opioid drugs.
Risks Specific to Abuse of OPANA ER
OPANA ER is for oral use only. Abuse of OPANA ER poses a risk of overdose and death. This risk is increased with concurrent abuse of OPANA ER with alcohol and other substances. Taking cut, broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved OPANA ER enhances drug release and increases the risk of over dose and death.
Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during chronic opioid therapy. Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs, and may develop at different rates for different effects.
Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dose reduction of a drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity, e.g., naloxone, nalmefene, or mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (pentazocine, butorphanol, buprenorphine, nalbuphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued opioid usage
OPANA ER should not be abruptly discontinued [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. If OPANA ER is abruptly discontinued in a physically-dependent patient, an abstinence syndrome may occur. Some or all of the following can characterize this syndrome: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including: irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate.
Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal symptoms [see Use in Specific Populations].
Read the Opana ER Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 7/27/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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