"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Adempas (riociguat) to treat adults with two forms of pulmonary hypertension.
Pulmonary hypertension is caused by abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. It make"...
Mechanism of Action
Endothelin (ET)-1 and its receptors (ETA and ETB) mediate a variety of deleterious effects, such as vasoconstriction, fibrosis, proliferation, hypertrophy, and inflammation. In disease conditions such as PAH, the local ET system is upregulated and is involved in vascular hypertrophy and in organ damage.
Macitentan is an endothelin receptor antagonist that prevents the binding of ET-1 to both ETA and ETB receptors. Macitentan displays high affinity and sustained occupancy of the ET receptors in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. One of the metabolites of macitentan is also pharmacologically active at the ET receptors and is estimated to be about 20% as potent as the parent drug in vitro.
The clinical efficacy study in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension assessed hemodynamic parameters in a subset of patients after 6 months of treatment. Patients treated with OPSUMIT 10 mg (N=57) achieved a median reduction of 37% (95% CI 22-49) in pulmonary vascular resistance and an increase of 0.6 L/min/m² (95% CI 0.30.9) in cardiac index compared to placebo (N=67).
In a randomized, placebo-controlled four-way crossover study with a positive control in healthy subjects, repeated doses of macitentan 10 and 30 mg (3 times the recommended dosage) had no significant effect on the QTc interval.
The pharmacokinetics of macitentan and its active metabolite have been studied primarily in healthy subjects. The pharmacokinetics of macitentan are dose proportional over a range from 1 mg to 30 mg after once daily administration.
A cross study comparison shows that the exposures to macitentan and its active metabolite in patients with PAH are similar to those observed in healthy subjects.
Absorption and Distribution
The maximum plasma concentration of macitentan is achieved about 8 hours after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability after oral administration is not known. In a study in healthy subjects, the exposure to macitentan and its active metabolite were unchanged after a high fat breakfast. Macitentan may therefore be taken with or without food.
Macitentan and its active metabolite are highly bound to plasma proteins ( > 99%), primarily to albumin and to a lesser extent to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. The apparent volumes of distribution (Vss/F) of macitentan and its active metabolite were about 50 L and 40 L respectively in healthy subjects.
Metabolism and Elimination
Following oral administration, the apparent elimination half-lives of macitentan and its active metabolite are approximately 16 hours and 48 hours, respectively. Macitentan is metabolized primarily by oxidative depropylation of the sulfamide to form the pharmacologically active metabolite. This reaction is dependent on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, mainly CYP3A4 with a minor contribution of CYP2C19. At steady state in PAH patients, the systemic exposure to the active metabolite is 3-times the exposure to macitentan and is expected to contribute approximately 40% of the total pharmacologic activity. In a study in healthy subjects with radiolabeled macitentan, approximately 50% of radioactive drug material was eliminated in urine but none was in the form of unchanged drug or the active metabolite. About 24% of the radioactive drug material was recovered from feces.
There are no clinically relevant effects of age, sex, or race on the pharmacokinetics of macitentan and its active metabolite.
Renal impairment: Exposure to macitentan and its active metabolite in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl 15-29 mL/min) compared to healthy subjects was increased by 30% and 60%, respectively. This increase is not considered clinically relevant.
Hepatic impairment: Exposure to macitentan was decreased by 21%, 34%, and 6% and exposure to the active metabolite was decreased by 20%, 25%, and 25% in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, B, and C), respectively. This decrease is not considered clinically relevant.
In vitro studies
At plasma levels obtained with dosing at 10 mg once daily, macitentan has no relevant inhibitory or inducing effects on CYP enzymes, and is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of the multi-drug resistance protein (P-gp, MDR-1). Macitentan and its active metabolite are neither substrates nor inhibitors of the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) and do not significantly interact with proteins involved in hepatic bile salt transport, i.e., the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the sodium-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP).
In vivo studies
Effect of other drugs on macitentan: The effect of other drugs on macitentan and its active metabolite are studied in healthy subjects and are shown in Figure 1 below.
Effects of other strong CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ritonavir on macitentan were not studied, but are likely to result in an increase in macitentan exposure at steady state similar to that seen with ketoconazole [see DRUG INTERACTIONS].
Effect of macitentan on other drugs
Warfarin:Macitentan once daily dosing did not alter the exposure to R-and S-warfarin or their effect on international normalized ratio (INR).
Sildenafil:At steady-state, the exposure to sildenafil 20 mg t.i.d. increased by 15% during concomitant administration of macitentan 10 mg once daily. This change is not considered clinically relevant.
In dogs, macitentan decreased blood pressure at exposures similar to the therapeutic human exposure. Intimal thickening of coronary arteries was observed at 17-fold the human exposure after 4 to 39 weeks of treatment. Due to the species-specific sensitivity and the safety margin, this finding is considered not relevant for humans.
There were no adverse liver findings in long-term studies conducted in mice, rats, and dogs at exposures of 12-to 116-fold the human exposure.
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
The effect of macitentan on progression of PAH was demonstrated in a multi-center, long-term (average duration of exposure approximately 2 years), placebo-controlled study in 742 patients with symptomatic [WHO functional class (FC) II-IV] PAH who were randomized to placebo (n=250), 3 mg macitentan (n=250), or 10 mg macitentan (n=242) once daily.
The primary study endpoint was time to the first occurrence of death, a significant morbidity event, defined as atrial septostomy, lung transplantation, initiation of IV or subcutaneous (SC) prostanoids, or “other worsening of PAH” during double-blind treatment plus 7 days. Other worsening was defined as all of the following: 1) a sustained ≥ 15% decrease from baseline in 6 minute walk distance (6MWD), 2) worsening of PAH symptoms (worsening of WHO FC), and 3) need for additional treatment for PAH. All of these other worsening events were confirmed by an independent adjudication committee, blinded to treatment allocation. A critical secondary endpoint was time to PAH death or PAH hospitalization.
The mean patient age was 46 years (14% were age 65 or above). Most patients were white (55%) or Asian (29%) and female (77%). Approximately 52%, 46%, and 2% of patients were in WHO FC II, III, and IV, respectively.
Idiopathic or heritable PAH was the most common etiology in the study population (57%) followed by PAH caused by connective tissue disorders (31%), PAH caused by congenital heart disease with repaired shunts (8%), and PAH caused by other etiologies [drugs and toxins (3%) and HIV (1%)].
At baseline, the majority of enrolled patients (64%) were being treated with a stable dose of specific therapy for PAH, either oral phosphodiesterase inhibitors (61%) and/or inhaled/oral prostanoids (6%).
Study results are described for the placebo and OPSUMIT 10 mg groups. The median treatment durations were 101 and 118 weeks in the placebo and OPSUMIT 10 mg groups, respectively, up to a maximum of 188 weeks.
Treatment with OPSUMIT 10 mg resulted in a 45% reduction (HR 0.55, 97.5% CI 0.39-0.76; logrank p < 0.0001) in the occurrence of the primary endpoint up to end of double-blind treatment compared to placebo (Table 3 and Figure 2). The beneficial effect of OPSUMIT 10 mg was primarily attributable to a reduction in clinical worsening events (deterioration in 6MWD and worsening of PAH symptoms and need for additional PAH treatment).
Figure 2 : Kaplan-Meier Estimates of the Occurrence of
the Primary Endpoint Event in the SERAPHIN Study
Table 3 : Summary of Primary
N=250 n (%)
|OPSUMIT 10 mg
N=242 n (%)
|Patients with a primary endpoint event*||116 (46.4)||76 (31.4)|
|Component as first event|
|Worsening PAH||93 (37.2)||59 (24.4)|
|Death||17 (6.8)||16 (6.6)|
|IV/SC prostanoid||6 (2.4)||1 (0.4)|
|*No patients experienced an event of lung transplantation or atrial septostomy in the placebo or OPSUMIT 10 mg treatment groups.|
Subgroup analyses were performed to examine their influence on outcome as shown in Figure 3. Consistent efficacy of OPSUMIT 10 mg on the primary endpoint was seen across subgroups of age, sex, race, etiology, by monotherapy or in combination with another PAH therapy, baseline 6MWD, and baseline WHO FC.
Figure 3 : Subgroup Analysis
of the SERAPHIN Study
Eo = Number of events OPSUMIT
10 mg; No = Number of patients randomized to OPSUMIT 10 mg
Ep = Number of events placebo; Np = Number of patients randomized to placebo
PAH related death or hospitalization for PAH was assessed as a secondary endpoint. The risk of PAH related death or hospitalization for PAH was reduced by 50% in patients receiving OPSUMIT 10 mg compared to placebo (HR 0.50, 97.5% CI 0.34-0.75; logrank p < 0.0001) (Table 4 and Figure 4).
Figure 4 : Kaplan-Meier Estimates of the Occurrence of
Death due to PAH or Hospitalization for PAH in SERAPHIN
Table 4 : Summary of Death
due to PAH and Hospitalization due to PAH
(N=250) n (%)
|OPSUMIT 10 mg
(N=242) n (%)
|Death due to PAH or hospitalization for PAH||84 (33.6)||50 (20.7)|
|Component as first event|
|Death due to PAH||5 (2.0)||5 (2.1)|
|Hospitalization for PAH||79 (31.6)||45 (18.6)|
Treatment with OPSUMIT 10 mg resulted in a placebo-corrected mean increase in 6MWD of 22 meters at Month 6 (97.5% CI 3-41; p=0.0078), with significant improvement in 6MWD by Month 3. 6MWD increased more in patients with worse baseline WHO Functional Class (37 meters and 12 meters placebo-corrected mean increase in WHO FC III/IV and FC I/II, respectively). The increase in 6MWD achieved with OPSUMIT was maintained for the duration of the study.
Treatment with OPSUMIT 10 mg led to an improvement of at least one WHO Functional Class at Month 6 in 22% of patients compared to 13% of patients treated with placebo.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/5/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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