"The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced today that injectable drugs used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in critical shortage will be imported into the United States and available to patients this week.
TPN is an intravenous"...
SEVERE ADVERSE EVENTS - INADVERTENT INTRATHECAL ADMINISTRATION: Serious adverse reactions have been reported due to the inadvertent intrathecal administration of iodinated contrast media that are not indicated for intrathecal use. These serious adverse reactions include: death, convulsions, cerebral hemorrhage, coma, paralysis, arachnoiditis, acute renal failure, cardiac arrest, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, hyperthermia, and brain edema. Special attention must be given to insure that this drug product is not administered intrathecally.
Nonionic iodinated contrast media inhibit blood coagulation, in vitro, less than ionic contrast media. Clotting has been reported when blood remains in contact with syringes containing nonionic contrast media.
Serious, rarely fatal, thromboembolic events causing myocardial infarction and stroke have been reported during angiographic procedures with both ionic and nonionic contrast media. Therefore, meticulous intravascular administration technique is necessary, particularly during angiographic procedures, to minimize thromboembolic events. Numerous factors, including length of procedure, catheter and syringe material, underlying disease state, and concomitant medications may contribute to the development of thromboembolic events. For these reasons, meticulous angiographic techniques are recommended including close attention to guidewire and catheter manipulation, use of manifold systems and/or three-way stopcocks, frequent catheter flushing with heparinized saline solutions and minimizing the length of the procedure. The use of plastic syringes in place of glass syringes has been reported to decrease but not eliminate the likelihood of in vitro clotting.
Serious or fatal reactions have been associated with the administration of iodine-containing radiopaque media. It is of utmost importance to be completely prepared to treat any contrast medium reaction.
As with any contrast medium, serious neurologic sequelae, including permanent paralysis, can occur following cerebral arteriography, selective spinal arteriography and arteriography of vessels supplying the spinal cord. A cause-effect relationship to the contrast medium has not been established since the patients' pre-existing condition and procedural technique are causative factors in themselves. The arterial injection of a contrast medium should never be made following the administration of vasopressors since they strongly potentiate neurologic effects.
Caution must be exercised in patients with severely impaired renal function, combined renal and hepatic disease, severe thyrotoxicosis, myelomatosis, or anuria, particularly when large doses are administered.
Intravascularly administered iodine-containing radiopaque media are potentially hazardous in patients with multiple myeloma or other paraproteinemia, particularly in those with therapeutically resistant anuria. Myeloma occurs most commonly in persons over age 40. Although neither the contrast agent nor dehydration has been proved separately to be the cause of anuria in myelomatous patients, it has been speculated that the combination of both may be causative. The risk in myelomatous patients is not a contraindication to the procedure; however, special precautions, including maintenance of normal hydration and close monitoring, are required. Partial dehydration in the preparation of these patients prior to injection is not recommended since this may predispose the patient to precipitation of the myeloma protein.
Administration of radiopaque materials to patients known or suspected of having pheochromocytoma should be performed with extreme caution. If, in the opinion of the physician, the possible benefits of such procedures outweigh the considered risks, the procedures may be performed; however, the amount of radiopaque medium injected should be kept to an absolute minimum. The blood pressure should be assessed throughout the procedure, and measures for treatment of a hypertensive crisis should be available.
Contrast media may promote sickling in individuals who are homozygous for sickle cell disease when administered intravascularly.
Reports of thyroid storm following the intravascular use of iodinated radiopaque agents in patients with hyperthyroidism or with an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, suggest that this additional risk be evaluated in such patients before use of any contrast medium.
Diagnostic procedures which involve the use of iodinated intravascular contrast agents should be carried out under the direction of personnel skilled and experienced in the particular procedure to be performed. A fully equipped emergency cart, or equivalent supplies and equipment, and personnel competent in recognizing and treating adverse reactions of all types should always be available. Since severe delayed reactions have been known to occur, emergency facilities and competent personnel should be available for at least 30 to 60 minutes after administration.
Preparatory dehydration is dangerous and may contribute to acute renal failure in patients with advanced vascular disease, diabetic patients, and in susceptible nondiabetic patients (often elderly with pre-existing renal disease). Patients should be well hydrated prior to and following the administration of OPTIRAY.
The possibility of a reaction, including serious, life-threatening, fatal, anaphylactoid or cardiovascular reactions, should always be considered (See ADVERSE REACTIONS). Increased risk is associated with a history of previous reaction to a contrast medium, a known sensitivity to iodine and known allergies (i.e., bronchial asthma, hay fever and food allergies) or hypersensitivities.
The occurrence of severe idiosyncratic reactions has prompted the use of several pretesting methods. However, pretesting cannot be relied upon to predict severe reactions and may itself be hazardous to the patient. It is suggested that a thorough medical history with emphasis on allergy and hypersensitivity, prior to the injection of any contrast medium, may be more accurate than pretesting in predicting potential adverse reactions. A positive history of allergies or hypersensitivity does not arbitrarily contraindicate the use of a contrast agent when a diagnostic procedure is thought essential, but caution should be exercised. Premedication with antihistamines or corticosteroids to avoid or minimize possible allergic reactions in such patients should be considered. Reports indicate that such pretreatment does not prevent serious life-threatening reactions, but may reduce both their incidence and severity.
General anesthesia may be indicated in the performance of some procedures in selected patients; however, a higher incidence of adverse reactions has been reported in these patients, and may be attributable to the inability of the patient to identify untoward symptoms or to the hypotensive effect of anesthesia which can prolong the circulation time and increase the duration of exposure to the contrast agent.
In angiographic procedures, the possibility of dislodging plaques or damaging or perforating the vessel wall should be considered during catheter manipulations and contrast medium injection. Test injections to insure proper catheter placement are suggested.
Patients with congestive heart failure should be observed for several hours following the procedure to detect delayed hemodynamic disturbances which may be associated with a transitory increase in the circulating osmotic load.
Selective coronary arteriography should be performed only in selected patients and those in whom the expected benefits outweigh the procedural risk. The inherent risks of angiocardiography in patients with chronic pulmonary emphysema must be weighed against the necessity for performing this procedure.
Extreme caution during injection of a contrast medium is necessary to avoid extravasation. This is especially important in patients with severe arterial or venous disease.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No long term animal studies have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential. However, animal studies suggest that this drug is not mutagenic and does not affect fertility.
Pregnancy Category B
No teratogenic effects attributable to ioversol have been observed in teratology studies performed in animals. There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. It is not known whether ioversol crosses the placental barrier or reaches fetal tissues. However, many injectable contrast agents cross the placental barrier in humans and appear to enter fetal tissue passively. Because animal teratology studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. X-ray procedures involve a certain risk related to the exposure of the fetus.
It is not known whether ioversol is excreted in human milk. However, many injectable contrast agents are excreted unchanged in human milk. Although it has not been established that serious adverse reactions occur in nursing infants, caution should be exercised when intravascular contrast media are administered to nursing women because of potential adverse reactions, and consideration should be given to temporarily discontinuing nursing.
Safety and effectiveness in children have been established for the use of OPTIRAY 350 and OPTIRAY 320 in angiocardiography, and for OPTIRAY 320 in contrast enhanced computed tomographic imaging of the head and body, and intravenous excretory urography.
Safety and effectiveness in newborns have not been established.
Last reviewed on RxList: 6/18/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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