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Mechanism Of Action
The Optison microspheres create an echogenic contrast effect in the blood. The acoustic impedance of the Optison microspheres is much lower than that of the blood. Therefore, impinging ultrasound waves are scattered and reflected at the microsphere-blood interface and ultimately may be visualized in the ultrasound image. At the frequencies used in adult echocardiography (2-5 MHz), the microspheres resonate which further increases the extent of ultrasound scattering and reflection.
The median duration of Optison contrast enhancement for each of the four doses of Optison, 0.2 (40% of recommended dose), 0.5, 3.0, and 5 mL , were approximately one, two, four, and five minutes, respectively [see Clinical Studies].
After injection of Optison, diffusion of the perflutren gas out of the microspheres is limited by the low partition coefficient of the gas in blood that contributes to the persistence of the microspheres.
The pharmacokinetics of the intact microspheres of Optison in humans are unknown.
The binding of perflutren to plasma proteins and its partitioning into blood cells are unknown. However, perflutren protein binding is expected to be minimal due to the low partition coefficient of the gas in blood.
Following intravenous injection, perflutren is cleared with a pulmonary elimination half-life of 1.3 ± 0.69 minutes (mean ± SD).
Perflutren is a stable gas that is not metabolized. The human albumin component of the microsphere is expected to be handled by the normal metabolic routes.
Perflutren is eliminated through the lungs within 10 minutes. The mean ± SD recovery was 96% ± 23%. The perflutren concentration in expired air peaked approximately 30-40 seconds after administration.
The efficacy of Optison was evaluated in two identical multicenter, controlled, dose escalation studies of 203 patients (Study A: n=101, Study B: n=102) with sub-optimal non-contrast echocardiography defined as having at least two out of six segments of the left ventricular endocardial border inadequately delineated in the apical four-chamber view. Among these patients there were 79% men, 21% women, 64% White, 25% Black, 10% Hispanic, and 1% other race or ethnic group. The patients had a mean age of 61 years (range: 21 to 83 years), a mean weight of 196 lbs. (range: 117 to 342 lbs.), a mean height of 68 inches (range: 47 to 78 inches), and a mean body surface area of 2.0m² (range: 1.4 to 2.6m²). Approximately 23% of the patients had chronic pulmonary disease, and 17% had congestive and dilated cardiomyopathy with left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs) of between 20% and 40% (by previous echocardiography). Patients with a LVEF of less than 20% or with New York Heart Association Class IV heart failure were not included in the studies.
After non-contrast imaging, Optison was administered in increasing increments as 4 doses (0.2, 0.5, 3.0 and 5 mL) with at least ten minutes between each dose. Ultrasound settings were optimized for the baseline (non-contrast) apical four-chamber view and remained unchanged for the contrast imaging. Static echocardiographic images and video-tape segments were interpreted by a reader who was blinded to the patient's clinical history and to the dose of Optison. Left ventricular endocardial border delineation and left ventricular opacification, were assessed before and after Optison administration by the measurement of visualized endocardial border length and ventricular opacification.
In comparison to non-contrast ultrasound, Optison significantly increased the length of endocardial border that could be visualized both at end-systole and end-diastole (see Table 3). In these patients there was a trend towards less visualization in women. Optison increased left ventricular opacification (peak intensity) in the mid-chamber and apical views (see Table 4). The imaging effects of Optison on endocardial border delineation and left ventricular opacification were similar at doses between 0.5 ml and 5 ml and were also similar among patients with or without pulmonary disease and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Table 3 :Left Ventricular Endocardial Border
Length Before and After OPTISONa, b
|OPTISON dose||Length at End-Systole (cm)||Length at End-Diastole (cm)|
|n||mean ± S.D.||n||mean|
|Study A (n=101)|
|0 mL (baseline)||87||7.7 ± 3.0||86||9.3 ± 3.4|
|0.5 mL||86||12.0 ± 4.9||91||15.8 ± 5.1|
|Study B (n=102)|
|0 mL (baseline)||89||8.1 ± 3.4||89||9.6 ± 3.7|
|0.5 mL||95||12.4 ± 4.9||97||16.4 ± 4.6|
|a The differences in the number of enrolled
patients and evaluated patients at each dose reflects exclusions based on
withdrawal from the trial, or those with technically inadequate or missing
b An intent-to-treat analysis, with non-favorable values imputed for missing patients, provided qualitatively similar results.
Table 4 :Intensity of Left Ventricular
Opacificationa Before and After OPTISON™ b,c
|Intensity at End-Diastole||Intensity at End-Systole||Intensity at End-Diastole||Intensity at End-Systole|
|n||mean ± S.D.||n||mean ± S.D.||n||mean ± S.D.||n||mean ± S.D.|
|Study A (n = 101)|
|0 mL (baseline)||91||39.5 ± 16.9||91||40.0 ± 18.1||91||46.7 ± 19.7||91||46.9 ± 20.1|
|0.5 mL||91||57.3 ± 26.8||90||57.4 ± 26.7||91||67.0 ± 30.1||90||64.1 ± 30.2|
|Study B (n = 102)|
|0 mL (baseline)||95||40.4 ± 17.4||95||40.9 ± 17.5||95||43.7 ± 19.9||95||45.0 ± 19.6|
|0.5 mL||97||53.3 ± 20.7||96||53.6 ± 21.0||97||64.4 ± 25.3||96||61.6 ± 26.7|
|a Intensity measured by video densitometry in
arbitrary gray scale units (0-255).
b The differences in the number of enrolled patients and evaluated patients at each dose reflects exclusions based on withdrawal from the trial, or those with technically inadequate or missing images.
c An intent-to-treat analysis, with non-favorable values imputed for missing patients, provided qualitatively similar results.
Pulmonary Hemodynamic Effects
The effect of Optison on pulmonary hemodynamics was studied in a prospective, open-label study of 30 patients scheduled for pulmonary artery catheterization, including 19 with an elevated baseline pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) ( > 35 mmHg) and 11 with a normal PASP ( ≤ 35 mmHg). Systemic hemodynamic parameters and ECGs were also evaluated. No clinically important pulmonary hemodynamic, systemic hemodynamic, or ECG changes were observed. This study did not assess the effect of Optison on visualization of cardiac or pulmonary structures.
Last reviewed on RxList: 11/21/2016
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Additional Optison Information
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