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Common adverse reactions for corticosteroids include fluid retention, alteration in glucose tolerance, elevation in blood pressure, behavioral and mood changes, increased appetite and weight gain.
Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, cardiac arrest, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac enlargement, circulatory collapse, congestive heart failure, fat embolism, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in premature infants, myocardial rupture following recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, syncope, tachycardia, thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis, vasculitis
Dermatologic: Acne, allergic dermatitis, cutaneous and subcutaneous atrophy, dry scalp, edema, facial erythema, hyper or hypo-pigmentation, impaired wound healing, increased sweating, petechiae and ecchymoses, rash, sterile abscess, striae, suppressed reactions to skin tests, thin fragile skin, thinning scalp hair, urticaria
Endocrine: Abnormal fat deposits, decreased carbohydrate tolerance, development of Cushingoid state, hirsutism, manifestations of latent diabetes mellitus and increased requirements for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetics, menstrual irregularities, moon facies, secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness (particularly in times of stress, as in trauma, surgery or illness), suppression of growth in children
Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances: Fluid retention, potassium loss, hypertension, hypokalemic alkalosis, sodium retention
Gastrointestinal: Abdominal distention; elevation in serum liver enzyme levels (usually reversible upon discontinuation); hepatomegaly, hiccups, malaise, nausea, pancreatitis; peptic ulcer with possible perforation and hemorrhage; ulcerative esophagitis
General: Increased appetite and weight gain
Metabolic: Negative nitrogen balance due to protein catabolism
Musculoskeletal: Aseptic necrosis of femoral and humeral heads; charcot-like arthropathy, loss of muscle mass; muscle weakness; osteoporosis; pathologic fracture of long bones; steroid myopathy; tendon rupture; vertebral compression fractures
Neurological: Arachnoiditis, convulsions; depression, emotional instability, euphoria, headache; increased intracranial pressure with papilledema (pseudotumor cerebri) usually following discontinuation of treatment; insomnia, meningitis, mood swings, neuritis, neuropathy, paraparesis/paraplegia, paresthesia, personality changes, sensory disturbances, vertigo
Reproductive: Alteration in motility and number of spermatozoa
Read the Orapred ODT (prednisolone sodium phosphate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
- Aminoglutethimide: Aminoglutethimide may lead to loss of corticosteroid-induced adrenal suppression.
- Amphotericin B: There have been cases reported in which concomitant use of Amphotericin B and hydrocortisone was followed by cardiac enlargement and congestive heart failure (see also Potassium depleting agents).
- Anticholinesterase agents: Concomitant use of anticholinesterase agents and corticosteroids may produce severe weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. If possible, anticholinesterase agents should be withdrawn at least 24 hours before initiating corticosteroid therapy.
- Anticoagulant agents: Co-administration of corticosteroids and warfarin usually results in inhibition of response to warfarin, although there have been some conflicting reports. Therefore, coagulation indices should be monitored frequently to maintain the desired anticoagulant effect.
- Antidiabetic Agents: Because corticosteroids may increase blood glucose concentrations, dosage adjustments of antidiabetic agents may be required.
- Antitubercular drugs: Serum concentrations of isoniazid may be decreased.
- CYP 3A4 inducers (e.g. barbiturates, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and rifampin): Drugs such as barbiturates, phenytoin, ephedrine, and rifampin, which induce hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme activity may enhance metabolism of prednisolone and require that the dosage of Orapred be increased.
- CYP 3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, macrolide antibiotics): Ketoconazole has been reported to decrease the metabolism of certain corticosteroids by up to 60% leading to an increased risk of corticosteroid side effects.
- Cholestyramine: Cholestyramine may increase the clearance of corticosteroids.
- Cyclosporine: Increased activity of both cyclosporine and corticosteroids may occur when the two are used concurrently. Convulsions have been reported with this concurrent use.
- Digitalis: Patients on digitalis glycosides may be at increased risk of arrhythmias due to hypokalemia.
- Estrogens, including oral contraceptives: Estrogens may decrease the hepatic metabolism of certain corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect.
- NSAIDS, including aspirin and salicylates: Concomitant use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids increases the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. Aspirin should be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids in hypoprothrombinemia. The clearance of salicylates may be increased with concurrent use of corticosteroids.
- Potassium-depleting agents (e.g., diuretics, Amphotericin B): When corticosteroids are administered concomitantly with potassium-depleting agents, patients should be observed closely for development of hypokalemia.
- Skin Tests: Corticosteroids may suppress reactions to skin tests.
- Toxoids and live or inactivated Vaccines: Due to inhibition of antibody response, patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy may exhibit a diminished response to toxoids and live or inactivated vaccines. Corticosteroids may also potentiate the replication of some organisms contained in live attenuated vaccines.
Read the Orapred ODT Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions
Last reviewed on RxList: 8/20/2010
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