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Administration of OPV is associated with a low incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in vaccinees. Also, individuals in close contact with recently inoculated vaccinees may be at a small risk of developing paralytic poliomyelitis because poliovirus can be shed in the feces (and possibly from the pharynx) for 6-8 weeks after OPV administration. Immunocompromised patients are also susceptible to this adverse reaction. The incidence of poliomyelitis is approximately 1 case per 2.6-5 million doses of OPV administered. Most cases of poliomyelitis
occur after the first dose. The risk of developing paralytic poliomyelitis has also been associated with intramuscular injections of medications received 30 days prior to the onset of paralysis. Intramuscular injections should be avoided for at least 30 days in patients who have received the poliovirus vaccine live oral (OPV) or for 60 days in patients who acquired the disease by contact with vaccine recipients.
In rare cases, Guillain-Barre syndrome has occurred after OPV administration, although a causal relationship has not been established.
Anaphylactic shock has occurred rarely after OPV administration and is manifest as urticaria, pruritus, erythematous skin, conjunctivitis, and sudden or severe fatigue. Cell-mediated, delayed-type allergic reactions (pruritus and rash) also have occurred but are less severe.
Fever can occur in as many as 5% of recipients receiving the injectable form of poliovirus vaccine. Fevers greater than 101.3 degrees F have been reported.
Read the Orimune (oral poliovirus vaccine) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effects
Concomitant administration of immunosuppressives (corticosteroids, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, radiation therapy) can decrease the immunological response to OPV and potentiate viral replication. Immunization should be deferred until the completion of immunosuppressive therapy, if possible.
When administered within 1 month of other live virus vaccines (such as MMR), OPV may not induce an adequate immune response. Although specific studies of the effect of simultaneous vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (oral poliovirus vaccine) and other vaccines are not always available, in most cases, simultaneous vaccination does not pose a problem. Whenever possible, however, OPV and other live virus vaccines should be administered at least 1 month apart. The OPV can be administered concurrently with the following preparations: hepatitis B vaccines; immune globulin; D.P. influenza vaccine (split or whole); polysaccharide vaccines (Haemophilus b, meningococcal, and pneumococcal vaccines); and inactivated vaccines. However, concurrent administration of OPV with cholera vaccine, typhoid vaccine, or plague vaccine may be associated with significant adverse reactions and should be avoided.
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
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