"A new retrospective study indicates that, in type 2 diabetes, treatment with insulin is safer when it is used together with metformin.
In the research, recently published in PLoS One, a team from Cardiff University, Wales, sh"...
Congestive Heart Failure
Consider the risks and benefits of OSENI prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure. Patients should be advised of the characteristic symptoms of congestive heart failure and should be instructed to immediately report such symptoms. If congestive heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of OSENI.
In the EXAMINE trial which enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome, 106 (3.9%) of patients treated with alogliptin and 89 (3.3%) of patients treated with placebo were hospitalized for congestive heart failure.
Pioglitazone, like other thiazolidinediones, can cause dose-related fluid retention when used alone or in combination with other antidiabetic medications and is most common when pioglitazone is used in combination with insulin. Fluid retention may lead to or exacerbate congestive heart failure [see BOXED WARNING, CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Acute pancreatitis has been reported in the postmarketing setting and in randomized clinical trials. In glycemic control trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, acute pancreatitis was reported in 6 (0.2%) patients treated with alogliptin 25 mg and 2 ( < 0.1%) patients treated with active comparators or placebo. In the EXAMINE trial (a cardiovascular outcomes trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular (CV) risk), acute pancreatitis was reported in 10 (0.4%) of patients treated with alogliptin and in 7 (0.3%) of patients treated with placebo.
It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for pancreatitis while using OSENI.
After initiation of OSENI, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, OSENI should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated.
There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with alogliptin. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema and severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue OSENI, assess for other potential causes for the event and institute alternative treatment for diabetes [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Use caution in patients with a history of angioedema with another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with OSENI.
There have been postmarketing reports of fatal and nonfatal hepatic failure in patients taking pioglitazone or alogliptin, although some of the reports contain insufficient information necessary to establish the probable cause [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
In glycemic control trials of alogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) were reported in 1.3% of patients treated with alogliptin 25 mg and 1.7% of patients treated with active comparators or placebo. In the EXAMINE trial (a cardiovascular outcomes trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular (CV) risk), increases in serum alanine aminotransferase three times the upper limit of the reference range occurred in 2.4% of patients treated with alogliptin and in 1.8% of patients treated with placebo.
Patients with type 2 diabetes may have fatty liver disease or cardiac disease with episodic congestive heart failure, both of which may cause liver test abnormalities, and they may also have other forms of liver disease, many of which can be treated or managed. Therefore, obtaining a liver test panel (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin) and assessing the patient is recommended before initiating OSENI therapy. In patients with abnormal liver tests, OSENI should be initiated with caution.
Measure liver tests promptly in patients who report symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice. In this clinical context, if the patient is found to have abnormal liver tests (ALT greater than three times the upper limit of the reference range), OSENI treatment should be interrupted and an investigation done to establish the probable cause. OSENI should not be restarted in these patients without another explanation for the liver test abnormalities.
In controlled clinical trials, edema was reported more frequently in patients treated with pioglitazone than in placebo-treated patients and is dose-related [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In postmarketing experience, reports of new onset or worsening of edema have been received.
OSENI should be used with caution in patients with edema. Because thiazolidinediones, including pioglitazone, can cause fluid retention, which can exacerbate or lead to congestive heart failure, OSENI should be used with caution in patients at risk for congestive heart failure. Patients treated with OSENI should be monitored for signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure [see BOXED WARNING, Congestive Heart Failure and PATIENT INFORMATION].
In PROactive (the Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events), 5238 patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of macrovascular disease were randomized to pioglitazone (N=2605), force-titrated up to 45 mg daily or placebo (N=2633) in addition to standard of care. During a mean follow-up of 34.5 months, the incidence of bone fracture in females was 5.1% (44/870) for pioglitazone versus 2.5% (23/905) for placebo. This difference was noted after the first year of treatment and persisted during the course of the study. The majority of fractures observed in female patients were nonvertebral fractures including lower limb and distal upper limb. No increase in the incidence of fracture was observed in men treated with pioglitazone (1.7%) versus placebo (2.1%). The risk of fracture should be considered in the care of patients, especially female patients, treated with pioglitazone and attention should be given to assessing and maintaining bone health according to current standards of care.
Urinary Bladder Tumors
Tumors were observed in the urinary bladder of male rats in the two-year carcinogenicity study [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. In two 3-year trials in which pioglitazone was compared to placebo or glyburide, there were 16/3656 (0.44%) reports of bladder cancer in patients taking pioglitazone compared to 5/3679 (0.14%) in patients not taking pioglitazone. After excluding patients in whom exposure to study drug was less than one year at the time of diagnosis of bladder cancer, there were six (0.16%) cases on pioglitazone and two (0.05%) cases on placebo.
A five-year interim report of an ongoing 10-year observational cohort study found a nonsignificant increase in the risk for bladder cancer in subjects ever exposed to pioglitazone, compared to subjects never exposed to pioglitazone (HR 1.2 [95% CI 0.9–1.5]). Compared to never exposure, a duration of pioglitazone therapy longer than 12 months was associated with an increase in risk (HR 1.4 [95% CI 0.9–2.1]), which reached statistical significance after more than 24 months of pioglitazone use (HR 1.4 [95% CI 1.03–2.0]). Interim results from this study suggested that taking pioglitazone longer than 12 months increased the relative risk of developing bladder cancer in any given year by 40%, which equates to an absolute increase of three cases in 10,000 (from approximately seven in 10,000 [without pioglitazone] to approximately 10 in 10,000 [with pioglitazone]).
There are insufficient data to determine whether pioglitazone is a tumor promoter for urinary bladder tumors. Consequently, pioglitazone should not be used in patients with active bladder cancer and the benefits of glycemic control versus unknown risks for cancer recurrence with pioglitazone should be considered in patients with a prior history of bladder cancer.
Use With Medications Known To Cause Hypoglycemia
Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulfonylureas, are known to cause hypoglycemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with OSENI.
Macular edema has been reported in postmarketing experience in diabetic patients who were taking pioglitazone or another thiazolidinedione. Some patients presented with blurred vision or decreased visual acuity, but others were diagnosed on routine ophthalmologic examination.
Most patients had peripheral edema at the time macular edema was diagnosed. Some patients had improvement in their macular edema after discontinuation of their thiazolidinedione.
Patients with diabetes should have regular eye exams by an ophthalmologist according to current standards of care. Patients with diabetes who report any visual symptoms should be promptly referred to an ophthalmologist, regardless of the patient's underlying medications or other physical findings [see ADVERSE REACTIONS].
Therapy with pioglitazone, like other thiazolidinediones, may result in ovulation in some premenopausal anovulatory women. As a result, these patients may be at an increased risk for pregnancy while taking OSENI [see Use in Specific Populations]. This effect has not been investigated in clinical trials, so the frequency of this occurrence is not known. Adequate contraception in all premenopausal women treated with OSENI is recommended.
Severe And Disabling Arthralgia
There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate.
There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with OSENI or any other antidiabetic drug.
Patient Counseling Information
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide)
Inform patients of the potential risks and benefits of OSENI.
Patients should be informed of the signs and symptoms of heart failure. Patients who experience an unusually rapid increase in weight or edema or who develop shortness of breath or other symptoms of heart failure while on OSENI should immediately report these symptoms to their physician. Before initiating OSENI, patients should be asked about a history of heart failure or other risk factors for heart failure including moderate to severe renal impairment.
Patients should be informed that acute pancreatitis has been reported during use of alogliptin. Patients should be informed that persistent, severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be instructed to promptly discontinue OSENI and contact their physician if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs.
Patients should be informed that allergic reactions have been reported during use of alogliptin and pioglitazone. If symptoms of allergic reactions (including skin rash, hives and swelling of the face, lips, tongue and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing) occur, patients should be instructed to discontinue OSENI and seek medical advice promptly.
Patients should be informed that postmarketing reports of liver injury, sometimes fatal, have been reported during use of alogliptin and pioglitazone. If signs or symptoms of liver injury occur (e.g., unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia or dark urine), patients should be instructed to discontinue OSENI and seek medical advice promptly.
Tell patients to promptly report any sign of macroscopic hematuria or other symptoms such as dysuria or urinary urgency that develop or increase during treatment, as these may be due to bladder cancer.
Inform patients that hypoglycemia can occur, particularly when an insulin secretagogue or insulin is used in combination with OSENI. Explain the risks, symptoms and appropriate management of hypoglycemia.
Therapy with thiazolidinediones, including pioglitazone, which is one of the active components of OSENI, may result in ovulation in some premenopausal anovulatory women. As a result, these patients may be at an increased risk for pregnancy while taking OSENI. Therefore, adequate contraception should be recommended for all premenopausal women who are prescribed OSENI.
Inform patients that severe and disabling joint pain may occur with this class of drugs. The time to onset of symptoms can range from one day to years. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if severe joint pain occurs.
Instruct patients to take OSENI only as prescribed daily. OSENI can be taken with or without meals. If a dose is missed, advise patients not to double their next dose. Patients should be informed that the tablets must never be split.
Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting OSENI therapy and to reread each time the prescription is refilled. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare provider if an unusual symptom develops or if a symptom persists or worsens.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility
Alogliptin And Pioglitazone
No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or impairment of fertility studies have been conducted with OSENI. The following data are based on findings in studies performed with alogliptin or pioglitazone individually.
Rats were administered oral doses of 75, 400 and 800 mg/kg alogliptin for two years. No drug-related tumors were observed up to 75 mg/kg or approximately 32 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) exposure. At higher doses (approximately 308 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg), a combination of thyroid C-cell adenomas and carcinomas increased in male but not female rats. No drug-related tumors were observed in mice after administration of 50, 150 or 300 mg/kg alogliptin for two years, or up to approximately 51 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on AUC exposure.
Alogliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic, with and without metabolic activation, in the Ames test with S. typhimurium and E. coli or the cytogenetic assay in mouse lymphoma cells. Alogliptin was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus study.
In a fertility study in rats, alogliptin had no adverse effects on early embryonic development, mating or fertility at doses up to 500 mg/kg, or approximately 172 times the clinical dose based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).
A two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in male and female rats at oral doses up to 63 mg/kg (approximately 14 times the MRHD of 45 mg based on mg/m²). Drug-induced tumors were not observed in any organ except for the urinary bladder. Benign and/or malignant transitional cell neoplasms were observed in male rats at 4 mg/kg and above (approximately equal to the MRHD based on mg/m²). A two-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in male and female mice at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg (approximately 11 times the MRHD based on mg/m²). No drug-induced tumors were observed in any organ.
Pioglitazone was not mutagenic in a battery of genetic toxicology studies, including the Ames bacterial assay, a mammalian cell forward gene mutation assay (CHO/HPRT and AS52/XPRT), an in vitro cytogenetics assay using CHL cells, an unscheduled DNA synthesis assay and an in vivo micronucleus assay.
No adverse effects upon fertility were observed in male and female rats at oral doses up to 40 mg/kg pioglitazone daily prior to and throughout mating and gestation (approximately nine times the MRHD based on mg/m²).
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy Category C
Alogliptin And Pioglitazone
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women with OSENI or its individual components. Based on animal data, the likelihood that OSENI increases the risk of developmental abnormalities is predicted to be low. OSENI should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
When administered to rats during organogenesis, the combination treatment with alogliptin and pioglitazone (100 mg/kg alogliptin plus 40 mg/kg pioglitazone) slightly augmented pioglitazone-related fetal effects of delayed development and reduced fetal weights but did not result in embryofetal mortality or teratogenicity.
Alogliptin administered to pregnant rabbits and rats during the period of organogenesis was not teratogenic at doses of up to 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, or 149 times and 180 times, respectively, the clinical dose based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).
Doses of alogliptin up to 250 mg/kg (approximately 95 times clinical exposure based on AUC) given to pregnant rats from gestation Day 6 to lactation Day 20 did not harm the developing embryo or adversely affect growth and development of offspring.
Placental transfer of alogliptin into the fetus was observed following oral dosing to pregnant rats.
In animal reproductive studies, pregnant rats and rabbits received pioglitazone at doses up to approximately 17 (rat) and 40 (rabbit) times the MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m²); no teratogenicity was observed. Increases in embryotoxicity (increased postimplantation losses, delayed development, reduced fetal weights and delayed parturition) occurred in rats that received oral doses approximately 10 or more times the MRHD (mg/m² basis). No functional or behavioral toxicity was observed in rat offspring. When pregnant rats received pioglitazone during late gestation and lactation, delayed postnatal development, attributed to decreased body weight, occurred in rat offspring at oral maternal doses approximately two or more times the MRHD (mg/m² basis). In rabbits, embryotoxicity occurred at oral doses approximately 40 times the MRHD (mg/m² basis).
No studies have been conducted with the combined components of OSENI. In studies performed with the individual components, both alogliptin and pioglitazone are secreted in the milk of lactating rats. It is not known whether alogliptin and/or pioglitazone are secreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for OSENI to cause serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made to discontinue nursing or discontinue OSENI, taking into account the importance of OSENI to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of OSENI in pediatric patients have not been established.
OSENI is not recommended for use in pediatric patients based on adverse effects observed in adults, including fluid retention and congestive heart failure, fractures and urinary bladder tumors [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Alogliptin And Pioglitazone
Of the total number of patients (N=1533) in clinical safety and efficacy studies treated with alogliptin and pioglitazone, 248 (16.2%) patients were 65 years and older and 15 (1%) patients were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. While this and other reported clinical experiences have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be excluded.
Of the total number of patients (N=9052) in clinical safety and efficacy studies treated with alogliptin, 2257 (24.9%) patients were ≥ 65 years old and 386 (4.3%) patients were ≥ 75 years old. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients ≥ 65 years old and younger patients.
A total of 92 patients (15.2%) treated with pioglitazone in the three pooled, 16-to 26-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials were ≥ 65 years old and two patients (0.3%) were ≥ 75 years old. In the two pooled 16-to 24-week add-on to sulfonylurea trials, 201 patients (18.7%) treated with pioglitazone were ≥ 65 years old and 19 (1.8%) were ≥ 75 years old. In the two pooled 16-to 24week add-on to metformin trials, 155 patients (15.5%) treated with pioglitazone were ≥ 65 years old and 19 (1.9%) were ≥ 75 years old. In the two pooled 16-to 24-week add-on to insulin trials, 272 patients (25.4%) treated with pioglitazone were ≥ 65 years old and 22 (2.1%) were ≥ 75 years old.
In PROactive, 1068 patients (41%) treated with pioglitazone were ≥ 65 years old and 42 (1.6%) were ≥ 75 years old.
In pharmacokinetic studies with pioglitazone, no significant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters between elderly and younger patients. These clinical experiences have not identified differences in effectiveness and safety between the elderly ( ≥ 65 years) and younger patients although small sample sizes for patients ≥ 75 years old limit conclusions [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY].
A total of 602 patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR ≥ 30 and < 60 mL/min/1.73 m²) and 4 patients with severe renal impairment/end-stage renal disease (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m² or < 15 mL/min/1.73 m², respectively) at baseline were treated with alogliptin in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reductions in HbA1c were generally similar in this subgroup of patients. The overall incidence of adverse reactions was generally balanced between alogliptin and placebo treatments in this subgroup of patients.
In the EXAMINE trial of high CV risk type 2 diabetes patients, 694 patients had moderate renal impairment and 78 patients had severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease at baseline. The overall incidences of adverse reactions, serious adverse reactions and adverse reactions leading to study drug discontinuation were generally similar between the treatment groups.
No dose adjustments are required in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade A and B) based on insignificant change in systemic exposures (e.g., AUC) compared to subjects with normal hepatic function in a pharmacokinetic study. Alogliptin has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade C). Use caution when administering alogliptin to patients with liver disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
No dose adjustments are required in patients with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade B and C) based on insignificant change in systemic exposures (e.g., AUC) compared to subjects with normal hepatic function in a pharmacokinetic study. However, use with caution in patients with liver disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
Last reviewed on RxList: 4/20/2016
Additional Oseni Information
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