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Osmitrol in Aviva

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Osmitrol Injection in Aviva

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Osmitrol Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) is one of the nonelectrolyte, obligatory, osmotic diuretics. It is freely filterable at the renal glomerulus, only poorly reabsorbed by the renal tubule, not secreted by the tubule, and is pharmacologically inert.

Mannitol, when administered intravenously, exerts its osmotic effect as a solute of relatively small molecular size being largely confined to the extracellular space. Only relatively small amounts of the dose administered is metabolized. Mannitol is readily diffused through the glomerulus of the kidney over a wide range of normal and impaired kidney function. In this fashion, approximately 80% of a 100 gram dose of mannitol will appear in the urine in three hours with lesser amounts thereafter. Even at peak concentrations, mannitol will exhibit less than 10% of tubular reabsorption and is not secreted by tubular cells. Mannitol will hinder tubular reabsorption of water and enhance excretion of sodium and chloride by elevating the osmolarity of the glomerular filtrate.

This increase in extracellular osmolarity effected by the intravenous administration of mannitol will induce the movement of intracellular water to the extracellular and vascular spaces. This action underlies the role of mannitol in reducing intracranial pressure, intracranial edema, and elevated intraocular pressure.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/4/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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