Osmitrol in Aviva
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Osmitrol Injection in Aviva
In patients with severe impairment of renal function, a test dose should be utilized (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). A second test dose may be tried if there is an inadequate response, but no more than two test doses should be attempted.
The obligatory diuretic response following rapid infusion of 15% or 20% mannitol injection may further aggravate preexisting hemoconcentration. Excessive loss of water and electrolytes may lead to serious imbalances. Serum sodium and potassium should be carefully monitored during mannitol administration.
If urine output continues to decline during mannitol infusion, the patient's clinical status should be closely reviewed and mannitol infusion suspended if necessary. Accumulation of mannitol may result in overexpansion of the extracellular fluid which may intensify existing or latent congestive heart failure.
Excessive loss of water and electrolytes may lead to serious imbalances. With continued administration of mannitol, loss of water in excess of electrolytes can cause hypernatremia. Electrolyte measurements, including sodium and potassium, are therefore, of vital importance in monitoring the infusion of mannitol.
Osmotic nephrosis, a reversible vacuolization of the tubules of unknown clinical significance, may proceed to severe irreversible nephrosis, so that the renal function must be closely monitored during mannitol infusion.
Do not connect flexible plastic containers of intravenous solutions in series, i.e., do not piggyback connections. Such use could result in air embolism due to residual air being drawn from one container before administration of the fluid from a secondary container is completed.
Pressurizing intravenous solutions contained in flexible plastic containers to increase flow rates can result in air embolism if the residual air in the container is not fully evacuated prior to administration.
Use of a vented intravenous administration set with the vent in the open position could result in air embolism. Vented intravenous administration sets with the vent in the open position should not be used with flexible plastic containers.
The cardiovascular status of the patient should be carefully evaluated before rapidly administrating mannitol since sudden expansion of the extracellular fluid may lead to fulminating congestive heart failure.
Electrolyte free mannitol should not be given conjointly with blood. If it is essential that blood be given simultaneously, at least 20 mEq of sodium chloride should be added to each liter of mannitol solution to avoid pseudoagglutination.
When exposed to low temperatures, solutions of mannitol may crystallize. Concentrations greater than 15% have a greater tendency to crystallization. Inspect for crystals prior to administration. If crystals are visible, redissolve by warming the solution up to 70°C, with agitation. Allow the solution to cool to room temperature before reinspection for crystals. Administer intravenously using sterile, filter-type administration set.
Although blood levels of mannitol can be measured, there is little if any clinical virtue in doing so.
The appropriate monitoring of blood levels of sodium and potassium; degree of hemoconcentration or hemodilution, if any; indices of renal, cardiac and pulmonary function are paramount in avoiding excessive fluid and electrolyte shifts. The routine features of physical examination and clinical chemistries suffice in achieving an adequate degree of appropriate patient monitoring.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Studies with Osmitrol Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential, or effects on fertility.
Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with mannitol. It is also not known whether mannitol can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Mannitol should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Studies have not been conducted to evaluate the effects of Osmitrol Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) on labor and delivery. Caution should be exercised when administering this drug during labor and delivery.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when mannitol is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness in children below the age of 12 have not been established.
Usage in Children
Dosage requirements for patients 12 years of age and under have not been established.
Clinical studies of Osmitrol Injection (Mannitol Injection, USP) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in the responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Last reviewed on RxList: 3/4/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.
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