September 3, 2015
font size

Pancreatic Cancer (cont.)

Medical Author:
Medical Author:
Medical Author:
Medical Editor:

What is pancreatic cancer?

Cancers that develop within the pancreas fall into two major categories: (1) cancers of the endocrine pancreas (the part that makes insulin and other hormones) are called "islet cell" or "pancreatic neuroendocrine" cancers and (2) cancers of the exocrine pancreas (the part that makes enzymes). Islet cell cancers are rare and typically grow slowly compared to exocrine pancreatic cancers. Islet cell tumors often release hormones into the bloodstream and are further characterized by the hormones they produce (insulin, glucagon, gastrin, and other hormones). Cancers of the exocrine pancreas develop from the cells that line the system of ducts that deliver enzymes to the small intestine and are commonly referred to as pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas comprises most of all pancreatic ductal cancers and is the main subject of this review.

Cells that line the ducts in the exocrine pancreas divide more rapidly than the tissues that surround them. For reasons that we do not understand, these cells can make a mistake when they copy their DNA as they are reproducing to replace other cells. In this manner, an abnormal cell can be made. When an abnormal ductal cell begins to divide in an unregulated way, a growth can form that is made up of abnormal looking and functioning cells. The abnormal changes that can be recognized under the microscope are called "dysplasia." Often, dysplastic cells can undergo additional genetic mistakes over time and become even more abnormal. If these dysplastic cells invade through the walls of the duct from which they arise into the surrounding tissue, the dysplasia has become a malignant tumor (cancer).

Pancreatic cancer should not be confused with the term pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is simply defined as inflammation of the pancreas and is mainly caused by alcohol abuse and /or gallstone formation (about 80%-90%).

What are pancreatic cancer causes and risk factors?

About 46,000 cases of pancreatic cancer occur yearly in the United States. Most people who develop pancreatic cancer do so without any predisposing risk factors. However, perhaps the biggest risk factor is increasing age; being over the age of 60 puts an individual at greater risk. Rarely, there can be familial, genetic syndromes arising from genetic mutations that run in families and put individuals at higher risk, such as BRCA-2 and, to a lesser extent, BRCA-1 gene mutations. Familial syndromes are unusual, but it is important to let a doctor know if anyone else in the family has been diagnosed with cancer. Additionally, certain behaviors or conditions are thought to slightly increase an individual's risk for developing pancreatic cancer. For example, African-Americans may be at greater risk as may individuals with close family members who have been previously diagnosed with the disease. Other behaviors or conditions that may put people at risk include tobacco use, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, a history of diabetes, chronic pancreatic inflammation (pancreatitis), and a fatty (or Western) diet. Prior stomach surgery may moderately increase one's risk as can certain chronic infections such as hepatitis B and H. pylori (a bacterial infection of the stomach lining). Certain drugs (sitagliptin [Januvia] and metformin and sitagliptin [Janumet]) have been linked to the development of pancreatic cancer. Some types of pancreatic cysts may put individuals at risk of developing pancreatic cancer. When pancreatic cancer begins, it usually starts in the cells that line the ducts of the pancreas and is termed pancreatic carcinoma or pancreatic exocrine cancer. Despite the associated risks cited above, no identifiable cause is found in most people who develop pancreatic cancer.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 5/29/2015

Source: MedicineNet.com
http://www.medicinenet.com/pancreatic_cancer/article.htm

Cancer

Get the latest treatment options.

Pancreatic Cancer Related Articles
advertisement
advertisement
Use Pill Finder Find it Now See Interactions

Pill Identifier on RxList

  • quick, easy,
    pill identification

Find a Local Pharmacy

  • including 24 hour, pharmacies

Interaction Checker

  • Check potential drug interactions
Search the Medical Dictionary for Health Definitions & Medical Abbreviations