Pap Smear (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Pap smear facts
- What is a Pap smear?
- Who should have a Pap smear?
- Which women are at increased risk for having an abnormal Pap smear?
- How is a Pap smear done?
- What are the risks of having a Pap smear?
- How is a Pap smear read (analyzed)?
- What information is included on a Pap smear report?
- Why is a woman's menstrual status important for the Pap smear?
- Why is a woman's past Pap smear history pertinent?
- When might a Pap smear not be adequate for interpretation?
- How is the final Pap smear diagnosis made?
- What are the possible recommendations for follow-up after a Pap smear?
- What treatments are available if a Pap smear is abnormal?
- What is the follow-up after treatment for an abnormal Pap smear?
- What is the current status of human papilloma virus (HPV) testing?
- When should women start and stop having Pap smears, and how often should Pap smears be performed?
- What is the current status of the newer Pap smear technologies?
- With Pap smears so available, why are women still dying of cervical cancer?
- Historical note: Dr. Pap
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
Why is a woman's past Pap smear history pertinent?
If a woman has had a history of a cellular abnormality on a previous Pap smear, it is important for her to inform the health care practitioner performing the current Pap smear. The patient should provide the details of any previous problems and treatments so that this information can be noted on the lab form. The past history of the woman helps the person who is reading (interpreting) the current Pap smear, because a particular abnormality on previous screening alerts the health care practitioner to look more carefully for specific findings on the current Pap smear.
When might a Pap smear not be adequate for interpretation?
It is a requirement that the report comment on the adequacy of the smear sample for Pap analysis. If the sample is inadequate, the report details the reason. Examples of problems that might be listed under "sample adequacy" include "drying artifact" or "excessive blood." These comments refer to factors that the person analyzing the smear feels may have interfered with his or her ability to interpret the sample.
Sometimes, a Pap smear report will read "unsatisfactory due to excessive inflammation." Inflammation that is present in the woman's cervical area may make it difficult to interpret the Pap smear. Examples of causes of inflammation might include infections or irritation. Inflammation is a common finding on pap smears. If it is severe, your doctor may want to try to determine the cause of the inflammation. In many cases, a repeat pap smear is recommended to determine if the inflammation has resolved and to obtain a sample that is adequate for interpretation.
How is the final Pap smear diagnosis made?
The final Pap smear diagnosis is based on three determining factors:
- The patient's history: The reader (the person reading the smear) takes into account the woman's history as noted on the lab request by the clinician performing the smear.
- Sample adequacy: The reader then decides whether the sample was adequate for interpretation.
- The presence or absence of cellular abnormalities: The reader then notes whether cellular abnormalities were seen on the slides. If the appearance of the Pap smear does not seem to coincide with the woman's clinical history, a comment may also be made to that effect.
The final diagnosis is a short statement that summarizes what the reader has found. Examples of final diagnoses include:
- Within normal limits;
- Absence of endocervical cells on the Pap smear;
- Unreliable Pap smear due to inflammation;
- Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS);
- Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); or
- High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).
There may also be additional comments such as "low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) with human papilloma virus."
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