Pap Smear (cont.)
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
In this Article
- Pap smear facts
- What is a Pap smear procedure?
- Who should have a Pap smear?
- What are the risks of having a Pap smear?
- What kind of doctor performs a Pap test?
- How is a Pap smear done?
- How will I find out the results of my Pap smear?
- What is an abnormal Pap smear?
- How is a Pap smear read (analyzed)?
- What information is included on a Pap smear report?
- Why is a woman's menstrual status important for the Pap smear?
- What are risk factors for cervical cancer and precancer?
- Why is a woman's past Pap smear history pertinent?
- When might a Pap smear not be adequate for interpretation?
- How is the final Pap smear diagnosis made?
- What are the possible recommendations for follow-up after a Pap smear?
- What treatments are available if a Pap smear is abnormal?
- What is the current status of human papilloma virus (HPV) testing?
- With Pap smears so available, why are women still dying of cervical cancer?
- Find a local Obstetrician-Gynecologist in your town
What is the current status of human papilloma virus (HPV) testing?
HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that may be spread from one person to another even when the genital sores are not visible. Many sexually active people are carriers of HPV, very often without even knowing they are carriers. It is estimated that up to 60% of sexually active women harbor this virus on their cervix or in their vaginal area. It is not unusual for a woman to be unaware that she has HPV - only to find out that her Pap smear shows evidence of HPV.
HPV is not curable, although the cellular damage it causes is generally treatable and vaccines against the most commonly found HPV types are available.
The main use of HPV testing in screening for cervical cancer is for determination of treatment and follow-up recommendations for women with Pap smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US).
With Pap smears so available, why are women still dying of cervical cancer?
It is critically important to recognize that the women who are at highest risk for abnormal Pap smear testing are those who are not getting regular Pap testing. Therefore, it follows that in order to improve overall cervical cancer screening, women who are not getting regular Pap smears should be educated about and offered Pap testing. These under-served women should be the most heavily targeted for Pap screening.
Between 60% and 80% of American women who are newly diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer have not had a Pap smear in the past five years and may never have had one. Women who have not had Pap smear screening tend to be concentrated in certain population groups including:
- Older women;
- The uninsured;
- Ethnic minorities, especially Latino, African American, and Asian American women;
- Poor women; and
- Women in rural areas.
Many doctors feel that the emphasis should be on universal access to proper Pap screening as opposed to the comparatively small benefit that would come from utilizing the newer technologies in women already undergoing screening. Cervical cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer worldwide. It is also one of the most preventable and treatable cancers.
"Cervical cancer screening tests: Techniques and test characteristics of cervical cytology and human papillomavirus testing"
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