Parkinson's Disease (cont.)
Sietske N. Heyn, PhD
Sietske N. Heyn is a medical writer with a PhD in neuroscience. Dr. Heyn's education includes a BS with honors from the University of Oregon, and a doctoral degree in neuroscience from the University of California at Davis. After completing postdoctoral training at the University of California, San Francisco, and many years of working as a medical writer at the Stanford University Center for Down Syndrome Research, Dr. Heyn now runs her own medical writing business.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- What is Parkinson's disease?
- What causes Parkinson's disease?
- What genes are linked to Parkinson's disease?
- Who is at risk for Parkinson's disease?
- What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
- What other conditions resemble Parkinson's disease?
- How is Parkinson's disease diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for Parkinson's disease?
- How can people learn to cope with Parkinson's disease?
- Can Parkinson's disease be prevented?
- What is the prognosis for Parkinson's disease?
- Parkinson's Disease At A Glance
- Parkinson's Disease FAQs
- Find a local Neurologist in your town
Who is at risk for Parkinson's disease?
- Age is the largest risk factor for the development and progression of
Parkinson's disease. Most people who develop Parkinson's disease are older than
60 years years of age.
- Men are affected about 1.5 to 2 times more often than women.
- A small number of individuals are at increased risk because of a family
history of the disorder.
- Head trauma, illness, or exposure to environmental toxins such as pesticides and herbicides may be a risk factor.
What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
The primary symptoms of Parkinson's disease are all related to voluntary and involuntary motor function and usually start on one side of the body. Symptoms are mild at first and will progress over time. Some individuals are more affected than others. Studies have shown that by the time that primary symptoms appear, individuals with Parkinson's disease will have lost 60% to 80% or more of the dopamine-producing cells in the brain. Characteristic motor symptoms include the following:
- Tremors: Trembling in fingers, hands, arms, feet, legs, jaw, or head.
most often occur while the individual is resting, but not while involved in a
task. Tremors may worsen when an individual is excited, tired, or stressed.
- Rigidity: Stiffness of the limbs and trunk, which may increase during
movement. Rigidity may produce muscle aches and pain. Loss of fine hand
movements can lead to cramped handwriting (micrographia) and may make eating
- Bradykinesia: Slowness of voluntary movement. Over time, it may become
difficult to initiate movement and to complete movement. Bradykinesia together
with stiffness can also affect the facial muscles and result in an
expressionless, "mask-like" appearance.
- Postural instability: Impaired or lost reflexes can make it difficult to
adjust posture to maintain balance. Postural instability may lead to falls.
- Parkinsonian gait: Individuals with more progressive Parkinson's disease develop a distinctive shuffling walk with a stooped position and a diminished or absent arm swing. It may become difficult to start walking and to make turns. Individuals may freeze in mid-stride and appear to fall forward while walking.
Secondary symptoms of Parkinson's disease
While the main symptoms of Parkinson's disease are movement-related, progressive loss of muscle control and continued damage to the brain can lead to secondary symptoms. These vary in severity, and not every individual will experience all of them. Some of the secondary symptoms include:
- anxiety, insecurity, and stress
memory loss, and
dementia (more common in elderly individuals)
- difficulty swallowing and excessive salivation
- diminished sense of smell
- increased sweating
- male erectile dysfunction
- skin problems
- slowed, quieter speech, and monotone voice
- urinary frequency/urgency
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