Parkinson's Disease (cont.)
Sietske N. Heyn, PhD
Sietske N. Heyn is a medical writer with a PhD in neuroscience. Dr. Heyn's education includes a BS with honors from the University of Oregon, and a doctoral degree in neuroscience from the University of California at Davis. After completing postdoctoral training at the University of California, San Francisco, and many years of working as a medical writer at the Stanford University Center for Down Syndrome Research, Dr. Heyn now runs her own medical writing business.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
- Parkinson's disease facts
- What is Parkinson's disease?
- What causes Parkinson's disease?
- What genes are linked to Parkinson's disease?
- Who is at risk for Parkinson's disease?
- What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
- What other conditions resemble Parkinson's disease?
- How is Parkinson's disease diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for Parkinson's disease?
- How can people learn to cope with Parkinson's disease?
- Can Parkinson's disease be prevented?
- What is the prognosis of Parkinson's disease?
- Parkinson's Disease FAQs
- Find a local Neurologist in your town
What is the treatment for Parkinson's disease?
There is currently no treatment to cure Parkinson's disease. Several therapies are available to delay the onset of motor symptoms and to ameliorate motor symptoms. All of these therapies are designed to increase the amount of dopamine in the brain either by replacing dopamine, mimicking dopamine, or prolonging the effect of dopamine by inhibiting its breakdown. Studies have shown that early therapy in the non-motor stage can delay the onset of motor symptoms, thereby extending quality of life.
The most effective therapy for Parkinson's disease is levodopa (Sinemet), which is converted to dopamine in the brain. However, because long-term treatment with levodopa can lead to unpleasant side effects (a shortened response to each dose, painful cramps, and involuntary movements), its use is often delayed until motor impairment is more severe. Levodopa is frequently prescribed together with carbidopa (Sinemet), which prevents levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain. Co-treatment with carbidopa allows for a lower levodopa dose, thereby reducing side effects.
In earlier stages of Parkinson's disease, substances that mimic the action of dopamine (dopamine agonists), and substances that reduce the breakdown of dopamine (monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors) can be very efficacious in relieving motor symptoms. Unpleasant side effects of these preparations are quite common, including swelling caused by fluid accumulation in body tissues, drowsiness, constipation, dizziness, hallucinations, and nausea.
For some individuals with advanced, virtually unmanageable motor symptoms, surgery may be an option. In deep brain stimulation (DBS), the surgeon implants electrodes to stimulate areas of the brain involved in movement. In another type of surgery, specific areas in the brain that cause Parkinson's symptoms are destroyed.
An alternative approach that has been explored is the use of dopamine-producing cells derived from stem cells. While stem cell therapy has great potential, more research is required before such cells can become of therapeutic value in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
In addition to medication and surgery, general lifestyle changes (rest and exercise), physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy may be beneficial.
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